آموزش برای توسعة پایدار برای خلیج توکیو: توسعه یک چارچوب تمرین ESD ساحلی دانشگاهی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29345||2009||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4404 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Marine Policy, Volume 33, Issue 4, July 2009, Pages 720–725
This paper reviews the initial phase of a coastal education for sustainable development program for Edomae, the innermost reaches of Tokyo Bay. The program has been steered by a working group of Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology faculty members from different academic backgrounds. Although the process began with conventional educational ideas, the ESD practice framework evolved to include more interactive activities. The overall goal is to pursue discussions of a plan for the sustainable use of Tokyo Bay in the coastal communities through a university–community partnership by developing Edomae ESD leaders in the coastal community.
Sustainable development was the central concept of the United Nations Conference on Environment and Development (UNCED) in 1992, and Chapter 36 of its action plan, Agenda 21, specifically emphasized the importance of education in promoting sustainable development and improving the capacity for people in all areas . In 2002, 10 years after UNCED, the United Nations named 2005–2014 the “Decade of Education for Sustainable Development” (DESD) . Table 1 presents the 10 essential ESD elements as defined by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization's (UNESCO) International Implementation Scheme (IIS) of DESD . No universal models of ESD exist, however, so reorientation and reshaping of the conventional curriculum are emphasized as the key to ESD promotion .In the coastal context, ESD is relevant to capacity-building for integrated coastal zone management (ICM). ICM is defined as “a process that unites government and the community, science and management, sectoral and public interests in preparing and implementing an integrated plan for the protection and development of coastal ecosystems and resources” . Chapter 17 of Agenda 21 requested that coastal states commit themselves to the integrated management of coastal areas for sustainable development , and the ICM concept rapidly spread in the 1990s as a means to achieve sustainability in coastal areas. The promotion of ICM was re-endorsed by the World Summit on Sustainable Development in 2002 . Along with the increasing recognition of ICM, the importance of education as part of capacity-building has been documented, and the conceptual framework has been well developed . Although ICM education is expected to take place at all levels of any relevant sectors , tertiary education marine affairs programs bear much of the responsibility . Much of the focus has been on the knowledge, skills, and attitudes that ICM professionals are expected to have  and on the curriculum that develops such professionals  and . What should a university-based coastal ESD program be like? Since the primary mission of a university is higher education, the program should involve students. At the same time, promoting democratic processes is a central ESD concept  and involving stakeholders is a key element, so a program should not be confined to the university. It should be open and connected to the coastal community to promote interactive processes with people from different backgrounds. With these challenges in mind, the Edomae ESD program was launched in October 2006. The ultimate goal is to discuss a plan for the sustainable use of Tokyo Bay. The Edomae ESD program has been steered by a working group of volunteer faculty members of the Department of Marine Science, Tokyo University of Marine Science and Technology (TUMSAT). This paper, through a review of the program's initiation phase (Phase I: August 2006–March 2007), examines the development of the practice framework in preparation for launching the next phase.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The Phase I process has influenced the development of the framework of the Edomae ESD practice. Although the overall goal remained almost the same from the initial stage (i.e., pursuing discussions of a plan for the sustainable use of Tokyo Bay), all of the practices to achieve the goal, including the approach and the program design, have become more interactive as a result of discussions with stakeholders. As a natural consequence of deepening community involvement, the point of view of the working group has moved to the community itself. The program now includes more community issues, such as community revitalization in conjunction with the link to Tokyo Bay, rather than only bay conservation issues. In particular, the biggest change is that the basis for the activities is the equal partnership of participants. Individual stakeholders, regardless of who they are, have their own experiences and ideas for Tokyo Bay, and all participants have something to say to others as well as to learn from others. Corresponding with this change in attitude was a reorientation of the use of conventional educational methods. Consequently, the program is no longer a one-way delivery of scientific knowledge, information, or coastal experience opportunities to the public. The three program activities have been linked to each other, and workshops in which the understanding of all of the stakeholders are shared have been placed at the center of the activities. In this way, the whole Phase I process to establish the ESD practice framework has turned out to be an ESD process for the working group. The group experienced team teaching by faculty members of different academic backgrounds in the pilot project and had in-depth discussions with the bay stakeholders outside academia for almost the first time. Through the Phase I process, the working group discovered two existing environmental education activities for the Edomae waters. The practitioners of these two activities joined the Edomae ESD Council. The Council has setup Edomae ESD community programs for Phase II (April 2007–March 2008), and the programs produced in Phase II were implemented with three TUMSAT ESD courses in the 2008 academic year.