توسعه پایدار تولید لیگنیت در معادن روباز در صربستان
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29347||2009||5 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||3290 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Mining Science and Technology (China), Volume 19, Issue 5, September 2009, Pages 679–683
Energy sector represents a key industrial branch for national, environmental and economic success. With its exclusive access to domestic deposits, lignite industry represents a guarantor of reliable raw materials, offering long-term supply security based on verified reserves. Currently operated coalmines in Serbia (Kolubara and Kostolac) have production around 36 million tons of lignite, and over 108 million m3 of overburden. Consequently, sustainability of lignite production requires cost reduction and environmental protection, as well as capacity increase. In order to rationalise, and increase efficiency of Serbian lignite mines, it is necessary to focus the activities on major issues shown within the triangle of energy policy objectives (security of supply, competitive prices and environmental protection). Production process optimisation singled out several special programs. Equipment revitalization and modernization is necessary taking into account that majority of the currently operated machinery has a life up to 25 years. Production process automation would enable high level of technical operation in the field of open cast mines management. Lack of coal quality uniformity is the permanent problem resulting by great amounts of coal reserves to be used uneconomically. Planning and training at all levels and finally cooperative software for business procedures and work order management. The measures suggested are a key precondition for maintaining competitive position of lignite production on international level.
In the end of the last and at the beginning of this millennium, energy sector, together with the natural environment preservation, presents an essential factor of global sustainable development. Within this context, certain strategically important questions such as a sustainable coal mining and sustainable coal utilisation aroused, though they appear as different issues in developed countries and developing, i.e., transition countries. A solution of these problems requires settlement of specific questions, on both, regional and local national level. Serbia possesses the great proven deposits of lignite (Fig. 1). The Serbian WEC Member Committee has reported that the proved amount of coal in place was over 21 billion tones, with most of it (97%) is a lignite. Within the other ranks, 6 million of whole 27 million tones of bituminous coal in place (22%) is deemed to be recoverable. The recovery factor attributed to the lignite reserves is approximately 66%. The pattern of Serbia’s coal reserves has been replicated in the current production levels: lignite (mostly surface- mined) accounted for more than 98% of total output in 2005 year. Most of the lignite is used for electricity generation, with minor quantities being briquetted or directly consumed in the industrial and residential sectors[1–3].Coal is the most significant energy potential, with the share of 84% in the structure of energy reserves. At this moment lignite-fired power plants supply over 60% of electricity in Serbia. Accordingly, energy sector, with its exclusive access to domestic deposits, represents a key challenge for the national, environmental and economic progress. Coal production in Serbia is based on two mining basins: MB ‘Kolubara’ and MB ‘Kostolac’ (As of 1 July 1999, EPS does not operate their plants on the territory of Kosmet). Current capacity of these open cast mines is over 36 million tons of lignite (Fig. 2), with over 108 million cubic meters of overburden (Fig. 3). On the other hand, European integration in the field of energy sector requires permanent adaptation of technological and corporate structures in lignite mining, especially of costs and competitiveness in generation of energy prices In addition, in the past several years environmental requirements have been imposed as a special condition for European integration. Since 2004 electricity market has undergone liberalisation that resulted by emerge of private energy traders. A specific quality of Serbia’s coal production is absence of a rough competition with other energy sources so far.Also a tendency for coal demand in future has been increasing. According to the expert predictions of the World Bank from the study developed in 2004 (The European Union’s CARDS Programme for the Balkan Region), with annual increase in electricity consumption up to 1.1% and to maximum 1.6% (Table 1), Serbia would become a permanent electricity importer in 2012. However, according to recent investigation the increase rate is higher than the anticipated one, warning that Serbia may face an electricity shortage several years earlier. Such predictions inevitably ask for urgent construction of new capacities for electricity generation, as well as for the modernisation and restructuring of existing mining capacities with production increase. Table 1 SEE electricity demand forecasts CAGR 2003–2020
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
A remarkable discord between the image about coal and actual coal performance and potential is still present in publicity. It is of utmost importance for coal industry to send the message that coal could provide a sustainable bridge towards the future, by parallel activity in terms of more efficient operation, better organisation and environmental impact. Based on all presented data, we can say that optimal and sustainable coal production in Serbia is within an arm’s reach. Lack of investments into this field for years, has consequences a very big ‘thirst’ for investments, as well as direct reversion to objectives and solutions within the favourable international environment. Thereby, Serbian industry could avoid possible wanderings, and contribute in the most efficient manner to the sustainable development of European community. A specific quality of Serbian coal mines is that equipment revitalisation has been planned together with mine development, and the introduction of new technologies. Cooperation with scientific institutions will be continued in the field the development and more efficient access to the resources.