اشتراک گذاری یک منبع مشترک در زمینه توسعه پایدار: مورد یک سیستم نوآوری چوب
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29363||2010||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9454 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Technological Forecasting and Social Change, Volume 77, Issue 7, September 2010, Pages 1126–1138
This case study of the Aquitaine wood filière emphasizes the need to integrate a stronger consideration of natural resources in the analysis of innovation systems. The analysis focuses on eight eco-innovation projects representing the Aquitaine wood filière, and carried out under the aegis of the Industries and Maritime Pine of the Future ‘competitiveness cluster.’ We show that dependence on the wood natural resource can configure the limits, objectives and expected performance of such innovation systems. While previous approaches have considered similar innovation systems from territorial, sectoral or technological perspectives, we argue that centering the analysis on this natural resource better enables consideration of the technological and environmental tensions and risks that are likely to destabilize the system.
The concept of the innovation system is based on replacing the idea of innovation as an individual decision-making process, instead considering the interactions among all actors in the innovation process that comprise institutional networks within their environment  and . This perspective has successfully guided new approaches to public policy. For example, in France, the “pôles de compétitivité” (‘competitiveness cluster’) policies, implemented in 2005, stem from the recognition of the need to improve the integration of innovation, industry and territory. In their second phase of development (2008–2013), they have to address sustainable development and environmental responsibility challenges. The wood filière provides an example of the application of these policies. The French term wood filière  and  is used here to designate an interactive value chain, from upstream to downstream, among the subsectors of wood-based industries including the forestry, wood and paper industries and sharing a common dependence on the wood resource. The ‘competitiveness cluster’ policy has been applied to this system, with the emergence in 2005 of the Industries et Pin Maritime du Futur 1 (IPMF) ‘competitiveness cluster’ in the Aquitaine region of southwestern France. The IPMF has been involved in the implementation of eco-innovation projects since 2005. Eco-innovation projects include any project whose implementation is new for the actor, is likely to be a process, product or organizational innovation, and has the explicit or implicit aim to reduce environmental pollution  and . This article examines the ways in which the filière's strong dependence on the wood resource affects the configuration of the Aquitaine region's wood innovation system (AWIS). We analyze here the effects and impacts of the promotion of eco-innovations on a system that shares a natural resource. Our conceptual approach departs from previous research that has attempted to link forest innovation processes with various systems models. To set these systems, these approaches have focused on their geographic, sectoral or technological dimension  and . By situating the wood resource at the heart of our analysis, we suggest a more inclusive approach whereby the system is defined in its frontiers and in its dynamics through the sharing of a common resource. Our research highlights dynamic features of the wood filière within a multidimensional framework. The eco-innovation projects represent disruptions that impact the system in various ways and are likely to affect its boundaries and performance. Reciprocally, this theoretical framework also enables us to measure the effect of the wood innovation system's configuration on the directions and contents of the eco-innovation projects.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study has emphasized the need to more strongly integrate the consideration of natural resources into innovation systems analysis. Analysis of the eight AWIS eco-innovation projects has illustrated the ways in which dependence on a natural resource exerts a deep influence on the limits, objectives and performances of an innovation system. This influence was examined at the convergence of territorial, sectoral and technological systems. The system, its actors and the innovations appear to be dependent on the resource; conversely, the resource appears to be dependent on the system's dynamics. This case study leads us to suggest the integration of a resource-based approach into research on the emergence and the roles of innovation systems. This approach also enables consideration of the sustainable development dimension in these systems. Such an analysis also facilitates the investigation of tensions, scientific and environmental controversies, and risks that are likely to emerge. For example, the January 2009 storm that affected the AWIS illustrates the total system imbalance that can result from an environmental disaster. This storm caused destruction that harmed private producers (at the center of both the wood filière and the innovation system), and also public facilities (services, leisure, carbon dioxide capture). Although it severely damaged the system, the storm may also open a window of opportunities  that could open the system to new development paths. The implementation of eco-innovations aims to anticipate these imbalances and reduce their negative impact. The process of institutionalization (according to the concept already defined in note 3) implemented by the ‘competitiveness cluster’ has been followed by a deinstitutionalization linked to the shock of the storm, further leading to a re-institutionalization process. For example, the ‘competitiveness cluster’ has helped the actors of the wood filière move from relationships of conflict toward resource sharing, and from implicit compromise to a more explicit coordination. The storm can be an opportunity to progress toward compromise and explicit agreements on resource management, which may include some coercion. Therefore, future development will focus on transforming unpredictable climate shock into forecasting and long-term planning toward multidimensional forest management. This study leads us to recommend public policy changes for the Aquitaine ‘competitiveness cluster,’ in particular regarding the assessment of its performance. When only criteria related to knowledge creation and market demands are taken into account, the system remains far from sustainable development goals. We suggest a multidimensional approach to assessment that combines four viewpoints. The technological viewpoint on the feasibility, viability and compatibility of the innovations should first be considered. Second, the ecological viewpoint would allow an accurate assessment of the ecological impact of new environmental innovations. Third, we also recommend the incorporation of the economic viewpoint to measure the system's productivity, job creation, and strategic positioning in the European and global contexts. Finally, the sociological viewpoint would enable the integration of social acceptability criteria for innovations, with a particular focus on sustainable development.