عرضه پایدار زنجیره ای-معدنی و توسعه پایدار، فراتر رفتن از معدن
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29440||2012||4 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||3120 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Resources Policy, Volume 37, Issue 2, June 2012, Pages 175–178
If the minerals and metals sector is to contribute successfully to sustainable development, it must adopt principles and practices which address the entire life cycle of the materials it creates. This paper examines how the social and environmental sustainability performance of products influences the sustainability agenda of the mining and metals sector. It illustrates how access to markets drives improvements in sustainability. It also considers how the sustainability of metal and non-metal products are using lifecycle approaches and outlines the importance of using appropriate tools for metals.
The past two decades have seen a growing realisation that the current model of global development is unsustainable: from the loss of biodiversity with the felling of rainforests or over-fishing to the negative effect our consumption patterns are having on the environment and the climate. Our way of life is placing an increasing burden on the planet. There is mounting evidence to suggest that this cannot be sustained. This is underscored by the Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005), an unprecedented study of ecosystem change on the planet that involved over one thousand experts worldwide. The Assessment concluded that “over the past 50 years, humans have changed ecosystems more rapidly and extensively than in any comparable period of time in human history [and this] has resulted in a substantial and largely irreversible loss in the diversity of life on Earth”. Equally as important as environmental pressures are social concerns (including health considerations), economic development and governance. The Mining, Minerals and Sustainable Development (MMSD) project broadly defines Sustainable Development as the integration of these four spheres, with the goal of “maximising the contribution to the well-being of the current generation in a way that ensures an equitable distribution of costs and benefits without reducing the potential for future generations to meet their own needs” (IIED, 2002). For the minerals sector, this usually means making choices and trade-offs – in terms of mining, metals refining and the use of mineral products throughout the supply chain. There is broader societal awareness of these issues more so now than ever before. Greater expectation means that pressure is increasing on all actors in society to do their part to support the shift to more sustainable consumption and production practices. The minerals sector – like many other industrial sectors – is recognised as having a vital role to play in meeting the future needs of society. The challenge industry faces is how to manage products and processes in a manner that facilitates a more equitable distribution of costs and benefits, and enables the industry to maintain a ‘social licence’ to produce and market. Customers are increasingly sensitive to the environmental and social performance of the products they utilise, and companies must respond appropriately. Given the potentially significant impacts and benefits of mining activity in the locations where it takes place, much attention is paid to costs and benefits at this scale. However, the downstream supply chain of mineral products provides us with a different lens for looking at the contribution to sustainable development of mineral products. On one hand, it is useful to look at the extent to which downstream supply chains and access to markets act as a driver for improved sustainable development performance for the sector. The other aspect revealed by looking at the supply chain is a more holistic understanding of the contribution of a given mineral material to sustainable development more broadly. This concept of materials stewardship means looking at how the use of mineral materials is optimised and how the environmental, health and safety risks are minimised. This paper focuses on access to markets as a driver for improved sustainability performance for the mining and metals sector and the need for companies to pay greater attention to materials stewardship. It also covers some of the key elements of materials stewardship, including life-cycle thinking and chemicals management.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This paper has attempted to summarise how the downstream supply chain of mineral products drives sustainable development in the mining/metals sector, and also looked at how the sustainability of products can be compared. The most direct drivers for better materials stewardship are market access-related. A growing number of these – as outlined above – are compelling reasons why companies ensure that their mineral products and processes are sustainable in an increasingly competitive marketplace. Trying to evaluate the most sustainable and/or ‘green’ products and comparing materials is very challenging. In this context, the growing importance of lifecycle assessment and related tools was outlined. There are a number of tools to ensure these methodologies can be applied to metals in a sound way, notably by the ICMM. The concept of eco-efficiency was also introduced as powerful way to look at where to focus efforts for different materials. Through proactive, collaborative efforts such as the implementation of materials stewardship, the industry can respond to increasing pressure to account for its performance both environmentally and socially. It is therefore vital that industry, and businesses in general, throughout the life cycle of materials, work together to meet these common challenges.