توسعه پایدار سازه های ساختمانی مناطق روستایی بر اساس آب و هوای محلی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29457||2013||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||3160 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Procedia Engineering, Volume 57, 2013, Pages 1295–1301
Sustainable development is a new concept with various perspectives in communities. Cities and rural areas are in the core of attention for developing. This study focuses on rural areas. Stability of building structures is so important in villages and rural areas. One sustainable development criterion of villagers is suitable housing. In this research, both new and traditional technologies are investigated for developing rural areas. The most part of Iran is in desert areas. This research investigates these areas in Iran as a case study. Two MCDM methods is applied as a new hybrid model in this research, at first SWARA is applied for weighting criteria and then COPRAS is applied for evaluating five selected building structures in term of these regions climate. Authors propose that this research can be useful as a framework for using in other regions in all around the world.
Sustainability, as a new paradigm in the past three decades, showed through some scientific evidence that flora and fauna species, water, air, forests, deserts and other ecosystems began to destroy and natural resources were overused. Since sustainability is a multidimensional issue (local, regional, and international dimensions), it have to be developed at a level that people live, work and interact with each other and with nature such as local level . “Sustainable development” (SD) was the only approach, after introducing this new paradigm that dealt with the problems resulted from degradation of the environment introduced by the Commission Report . Because SD is accounted as a key insight to society further development, it has changed to a significant aim for policy makers  that is improving the lifestyle of the current population so that will not have a negative impact on future generations . The nature of the research of the sustainable development problems is multi and interdisciplinary. Moreover, the regional aspect of the sustainable development research is its key aspect. Attempts to show processes and changes interaction of the various nature in the different regional systems herewith. According to the literature, two different classes of SD are implemented and they begin with developed and developing countries: First class. A class confronts with the problems of the environmental pollution and excessive consumption of natural resources.Second class. A class specified by the feature of developing countries such as rapid growth in population, poverty, gender inequality, education, and medical service problems. The common and important characteristic of both developing and developed countries, however, is their progress based on natural evolution patterns. But, the rate of their economic and welfare growth has been different . In order to achieving the goal of rural sustainable development in most developing countries, which promotes social and economic development of local communities, the rural areas cooperatives face with limitations . There some elements which are needed to establish a sustainable economy in rural areas that are infrastructure, clean seeds, guidance in crops and livestock production, and credit as well as cooperatives, education, marketing facilities, farm machinery, water supplies, and diverse economic activities. All of them are necessary to establish a sustainable and efficient rural development in each village. As a developing country, Iran has 65 000 villages with about 22 million people living in rural areas. They are living under poverty line and their survive depend on agriculture, whether directly or indirectly , . Beside, agricultural sector which accounts for 27% of GDP, 22.9% of employment opportunities, 82% of food supply and 35% of non-oil exports, plus considerable raw materials for industrial use dominate the Iranian rural economy . Thus, it becomes an important issue for Iranian government policies so that they begin to conduct some projects for sustainable development of this area. In recent years, after occurring some earthquake with no high Richter scales and destroying many rural areas and villages buildings, concerns were on the fact that rural areas buildings in Iran were not suitable for that condition. Many people in Kerman province and Guilan province dead because of the earthquakes in recent decades. One important issue in sustainable development is people welfare in their community, whether cities or villages. Nooripoor and Shahvali  proposed that evaluating and prioritizing the sustainability of villages and rural areas are more important than just having a knowledge about them. This research focuses on improving structures of rural areas. Buildings are important for this research aim and decision making about building the structures in the villages is the priority of this research. In construction management one constantly confronts with various problems that require effective decisions. Decision environments, from a single person and a single criterion (profit), eventually become multi-person and multi-criteria. Multiple criteria decision making methods (MCDM) can be used effectively to determine the value and the utility degree of the construction projects and to establish the priority order of their implementation . Villages of the desert regions are more important for this research because many areas of Iran are deserts. The case study of this research is such areas in Iran as Yazd, Kerman and Semnan provinces. In this research two MCDM methods are applied. At first, SWARA method is applied to evaluate and weight the criteria of sustainable development buildings of rural areas and then, COPRAS is applied to evaluate and prioritize buildings structures systems.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This research focuses on improving rural areas buildings with sustainable development perspective. It is based on this perspective. In order to make a good decision and better selection, two MCDM methods are applied. Twelve experts participate in this research. Experts have three important roles. At first, they establish the model of research at a conference meeting, then they involve in solving SWARA method for prioritizing and weighting criteria of research model, and finally, involve in solving COPRAS for evaluating and ranking alternatives. The criteria of this research are Cost (materials, unskilled labors and skilled labors), Stability (durability, resistance (lateral force), Construction duration, Environmentally friendship, and Environmental compatibility. Final results of SWARA method are shown in Tables 3-5 and Stability is the most important criteria in the research model. Five buildings structures are selected for this research based on the local climate that are Light Guage Steel Frames (A1), Insulating Concrete frameworks (A2), Tronco Systems (A3), 3D Sandwich Panels (A4), the Iranian traditional systems used in deserts (A5). Final results of COPRAS show that Iranian traditional systems used in deserts are the best choice for such an area of local climate in Iran. These structures are selected regarding with the case study of the research that is about the rural areas in deserts. Because deserts constitute the most part of Iran. Authors suggest that this methodology and framework can be developed in this and other areas of researches.