تجزیه و تحلیل ردپا کربن : به سوی یک مدل ارزیابی پروژه ها برای ترویج توسعه پایدار
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29458||2013||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6650 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Procedia Economics and Finance, Volume 6, 2013, Pages 353–363
Climate change and global warming are internationally recognized as current issues, driving negative effects on humanity, and being mainly caused by GHG emissions generated both from industrial activities, and from other anthropogenic activities. Restoring the ecological balance requires urgent action to reduce GHG emissions. In this respect, the European Union has set the target to reduce the GHG emissions by 20% until 2020, compared to 1990 level. This paper presents a methodology to develop a model for carbon footprint calculation, for assessing and reducing GHG emissions generated by European funds financed projects.
Environmental protection has now become a major concern, especially following the significant negative consequences involved by the economic development promoted since the industrial revolution. People become progressively aware of their activities implications on the environment, and are increasingly interested in reducing and correcting the adverse effects. A growing number of studies, research and collected data, reveal the existence of a direct relationship between climate change and carbon dioxide emissions (CO2) (IEA, 2012). According to the Fourth Assessment Report prepared by Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC), activities of all nations generate increasingly more GHG emissions, having significant negative impacts on climate change due to alterations taking place in the compositional level of the atmosphere, and also on rising the average global temperature since the mid of the 20th Century (IPCC, 2007). The main elements that generate large amounts of carbon dioxide are fossil fuels (especially oil and coal), through burning them for obtaining energy. Of all the greenhouse gases, CO2 has the largest share. Thus, emissions of other greenhouse gases (CH4, N2O, HFC, PFC, SF6) are converted in units of CO2 equivalent (CO2e), using the warming potential related to each gas. Among the adverse effects of GHG emissions we can mention: global warming, decreasing water availability for humanity, pollution of air, water and soil, melting ice caps and increasing oceans level, degradation of the ozone layer, extreme weather events, changes of the seasons, reducing biodiversity, desertification. The PWC Report (2012) "Low Carbon Economy Index" concludes that a 5.1% annual rate is required for decrease of GHG emissions by 2050, in order to achieve our target of planetary warming with maximum 2oC. In 2011, this rate was 0.7%, while the average starting from 2000 is 0.8%. The reduction target was not reached during the last period, on the one hand because of the increasing emissions in emerging countries and, on the other hand, due to insufficient involvement of other countries in objectives achieving, materialized in uncertain policies on national and international level, reduced efforts for low emissions technologies and even a decline in renewable energy field. In the relationship between economic growth and evolution of generated emissions, the latter has an asymmetrical trajectory, increasing with a higher rate than the economic growth, but more slowly decreasing compared with the economic decrease. Currently, there are two methods to combat the effects of GHG emissions: Reducing the level of emissions; Flexible trading mechanisms in the carbon certificates market: acquiring the rights to emit GHGs by owning a carbon certificate/license. Within the Kyoto Conference in 1997, the treaty to reduce the GHG emissions was established and for stabilizing the gases concentration in the atmosphere. A total of 192 countries have signed the agreement to reduce emissions by 2012, with an average of 5% compared to the 1990 level. If a country does not fulfill its reduction target, surpassing the assumed rate, it is forced to buy allowances from countries that have not consumed theirs. Thus, the mandatory market for carbon certificates was created. The first cause concerned in generating GHG emissions is the energy industry. Burning fossil fuels to obtain processes to reduce emissions and play an active ro experts believe that the market for trading carbon emissions can be a beneficial demarche both for companies and also for the planet in the long term, because it involves an efficient and rapid method for emissions reduction in the energy industry. (Deloitte, 2010) Aichele and Felbermayr (2011) argue that the Kyoto Protocol has been ineffective or possibly even environmental harmful, due to the emergence of carbon leakage, through increasing of the emissions generated by imports and carbon emissions reallocation. In parallel with the mandatory market for carbon certificates, the voluntary market for carbon certificates is operating, giving the owner of one certificate the right to offset one tonne of CO2e emission, based on the fact that the certificate was issued after a project for reducing emissions with one tonne in atmosphere. Voluntary market has the advantage that supports financially the research-development- innovation projects, in the field of carbon emissions, having concrete results for new and sustainable technologies (renewable energy). The emissions reduction can be achieved using technology and materials that generate fewer gases, but also through compensating the generated emission, by creating absorption capacity for carbon emissions. By photosynthesis process, trees convert carbon dioxide into oxygen and other organic compounds necessary for life. Thus, afforestation can reduced the effects involved by GHG emissions.Another cause that contributes to the greenhouse effect is soil pollution, in particular through massive deforestation (Munteanu et al., 2011, pp 12, 18-19). The measures implemented by Romania to reduce GHG emissions include Joint Implementation (JI) projects, in collaboration with other states, to achieve the technology transfer for GHG decreasing and for energy efficiency, improvement of environmental quality and biodiversity conservation. JI projects consist in: construction of Combined Heat and Power CHP units; use of the low-carbon fuels in industrial equipment and energy production; promoting non-conventional energy; methane recovery from urban landfill; reducing greenhouse emissions in the sector of agriculture, energy and transport; activities for afforestation and/or reforestation of degraded land. (ANPM, 2011, pp 39-40). In this sector, an important role is held by protected areas both to maintain biodiversity, geodiversity, conservation of the ecosystem with complex features, and to increase the sequestration capacity of GHG on national level. Maintaining biodiversity through the protected areas is necessary, not only for sustaining life in the present,but also for future generations because it maintains the regional and global ecological balance, guaranteeing regeneration of biological resources and maintaining environmental quality (air, water, soil) that are necessary for the society. Sustainable development is an objective of the European Union, declared and assumed in the last development strategy: Europe 2020. In 2008, the European Parliament made a commitment to reduce GHG emissions by 20% until 2020, compared to the value from 1990. Consistent with this objective, each member state has undertaken its own GHG reduction targets. Thus, Romania has assumed a 20% reduction in GHG emissions by 2020. Our country is currently ending its first programming period 2007-2013, when European funds have been accessed for strategic investments both for human development and technological capital, and for natural capital, considering the principles of sustainable development. Given the assumed target of reducing GHG emissions, we believe that in the next programming period 2014- 2020 it is necessary a greater involvement at all levels to achieve the goals. In this respect, we consider useful to integrate a model in the Guides for Applicants of the european funds, initial having low complexity, to calculate the carbon footprint of emissions generated from the proposed project. In this paper we present the methodology to develop such a model, which should be national available for any potential grant applicant, and will create both a comparability system of projects in terms of emissions (in order to select the most competitive) and a monitoring system for reduced emissions, so that each project financed by EU funds will contribute to the national objective of reducing GHG emissions.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Consequences of maintaining stable or increasing GHG emissions have become evident both globally and at individual and organizational level. Evolution of CO2 emissions illustrates the necessity for each state to plan more sustainable energy future. Under these circumstances, we consider that any action to reduce GHG emissions is welcomed and should be applied as soon as possible and voluntarily, prior being required by state, by imposing restrictive legislation or corrective actions. Citizens, organizations and politicians at European level, have concluded the need to shift from the actual development to an economy and a sustainable lifestyle, by reducing the negative impact on nature and future generations. In this paper we present a methodology to develop a model for calculating the carbon footprint for grant funded projects. This approach is consistent with the objective assumed by our country to reduce GHG emissions by 20% until 2020. The proposed model could be integrated in the programmatic documentation in the next financing programming period 2014-2020, in order to be mandatory prepared by grant applicants. The complexity level is reduced, but subsequently and according to the level of familiarity of users in apluing it, the model can be updated and further developed. While calculating the carbon footprint by taking into account all emissions types: direct and indirect, downstream and upstream, can provide an overview of the environmental impact, this process requires advanced knowledge and considerable resources. As the scientific literature is still in development, we consider important for an organization / institution to apply a simplified model for calculating the carbon footprint that can be easily understood and provide a comparability basis. The proposed model will provide the basis for a decision making process on choosing a construction option with lower carbon emissions, ever since the planning and design phase. The same issue can be applied for the operating period, by identification of high emissions points and intervening for improvement. However, we consider that the carbon footprint should not be used as a singular and exclusive indicator of sustainability, but together with other complementary indicators that can demonstrate the real impact of the project on both the environment and the society. Another advantage of the model is contributing to public awareness and education for managing and reducing carbon emissions, by self-evaluation and determination. Similar carbon models can be used in the future for carbon taxes, carbon units allocation or personal carbon trading (Kenny and Gray, 2009). The proposed model can be applied to other funding programs, for refundable or nonrefundable financing, on national or european level, in our country or any other country. Specifically, it is a model for carbon footprint analysis of an investment project, that can be presented along with cost-benefit analysis and economic efficiency indicators, such as NPV and IRR. Along with emissions monitoring, also maintaining and developing carbon sequestration capacity are necessary, particularly by regulating and promoting protected areas. By adopting efficient systems for land use planning, and by controlling and monitoring constructions, projects, industrial plants, agriculture, forestry, the protection of all natural and cultural resources will be strengthened, including protected areas, creating capacities for carbon emissions reduction, thereby promoting and supporting a sustainable development.