ارزیابی جهانی تحقیق و توسعه برای تولید سوخت زیستی جلبک و نقش بالقوه آن برای توسعه پایدار در کشورهای در حال توسعه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29490||2013||14 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||11620 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Energy Policy, Volume 61, October 2013, Pages 182–195
The possibility of economically deriving fuel from cultivating algae biomass is an attractive addition to the range of measures to relieve the current reliance on fossil fuels. Algae biofuels avoid some of the previous drawbacks associated with crop-based biofuels as the algae do not compete with food crops. The favourable growing conditions found in many developing countries has led to a great deal of speculation about their potentials for reducing oil imports, stimulating rural economies, and even tackling hunger and poverty. By reviewing the status of this technology we suggest that the large uncertainties make it currently unsuitable as a priority for many developing countries. Using bibliometric and patent data analysis, we indicate that many developing countries lack the human capital to develop their own algae industry or adequately prepare policies to support imported technology. Also, we discuss the potential of modern biotechnology, especially genetic modification (GM) to produce new algal strains that are easier to harvest and yield more oil. Controversy surrounding the use of GM and weak biosafety regulatory system represents a significant challenge to adoption of GM technology in developing countries. A range of policy measures are also suggested to ensure that future progress in algae biofuels can contribute to sustainable development.
Global energy demand is increasing, driven by a mixture of sustained high consumption in the industrialised countries and rapid economic growth in developing countries such as India and China. Currently much of this demand is met by the combustion of fossil fuels with attendant problems such as supply insecurity, air pollution, price volatility, environmental degradation, and climate change. Here we assess the potential of a proposed next-generation technology derived from harvesting algae biomass to produce a liquid fuel that can partly contribute to alleviating some of these problems whilst simultaneously contributing to the sustainable development of developing countries. In particular, we assess the current technical status of algae biofuel technology in relation to the production of the most common fuels (bioethanol, methanol and diesel) and describe the appropriateness of promoting the growth of an algae biofuel industry in developing countries. We also examine the potential role of modern biotechnology in improving commercial viability of algae biofuel. The size and location of algae research and development (R&D) activity is determined using international academic and patent publication records in order to estimate institutional capacity to benefit from the development of any potential industry. Given the uncertainty which still exists about the viability and suitability of this early-stage technology we avoid providing any new scenario estimates and instead conclude by offering suggestions on how policy can hope to overcome some of the obstacles identified.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
For developing countries, particularly those with the lowest incomes, it is a difficult balancing act in deciding how best to support an immature, but potentially highly lucrative, industry with the more immediate needs of citizens for basic healthcare and education. With respect to algae biofuel, there too many uncertainties (e.g. environmental impacts, technology choice, algae productivity etc.) and unknowns (e.g. future fossil fuel prices) exist to recommend that public money or development aid should be used to support such an industry at this stage. In these situations it is perhaps best to offer administrative and legal support in order to provide either local businesses or appropriate foreign organisations with the framework in which to safely undertake preliminary studies and demonstration plants for algae biofuel. A different conclusion can be drawn for emerging markets such as China, India, and Brazil, which are better placed to undertake greater risks with investment in new technologies. There is of course a difficulty in continuing to refer to the world's second largest economy as a ‘developing country’ and similarly with respect to India and Brazil which are home to world-leading companies and research institutes. Nonetheless, despite the rapid economic growth enjoyed by these emerging world powers in the last two decades, this growth has been very unevenly distributed. These emerging powers are well-positioned to build on their existing crop biofuel and nutrient algae industries to develop an algae biofuel industry. The significant R&D activity taking place in China and India indicates that these countries are keen to develop such technologies independently and gain a first-mover advantage. However, there is a concern that focusing attention on such technology will do little to address the needs of those who have so far failed to benefit from the rapid economic growth. A critical eye must be kept on algae biofuel technology to ensure that its development in both low-income and newly developed economies is such that certain groups and interests are not privileged at the expense of the most vulnerable.