دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 29499
عنوان فارسی مقاله

MMR : یک الگوریتم برای خوشه بندی داده های طبقه ای با استفاده از نظریه مجموعه راف

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
29499 2007 15 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید 7490 کلمه
خرید مقاله
پس از پرداخت، فوراً می توانید مقاله را دانلود فرمایید.
عنوان انگلیسی
MMR : An algorithm for clustering categorical data using Rough Set Theory
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Data & Knowledge Engineering, Volume 63, Issue 3, December 2007, Pages 879–893

کلمات کلیدی
تجزیه و تحلیل خوشه ای - اطلاعات طبقه ای - نظریه محموعه دقیق - داده کاوی -
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله MMR : یک الگوریتم برای خوشه بندی داده های طبقه ای با استفاده از نظریه مجموعه راف

چکیده انگلیسی

A variety of cluster analysis techniques exist to group objects having similar characteristics. However, the implementation of many of these techniques is challenging due to the fact that much of the data contained in today’s databases is categorical in nature. While there have been recent advances in algorithms for clustering categorical data, some are unable to handle uncertainty in the clustering process while others have stability issues. This research proposes a new algorithm for clustering categorical data, termed Min–Min-Roughness (MMR), based on Rough Set Theory (RST), which has the ability to handle the uncertainty in the clustering process.

مقدمه انگلیسی

Cluster analysis is a data analysis tool used to group data with similar characteristics. It has been used in data mining tasks such as unsupervised classification and data summation, as well as segmentation of large heterogeneous data sets into smaller homogeneous subsets that can be easily managed, separately modeled and analyzed [12]. The basic objective in cluster analysis is to discover natural groupings of objects [14]. Cluster analysis techniques have been used in many areas such as manufacturing, medicine, nuclear science, radar scanning and research and development planning. For example, Jiang et al. [13] analyze a variety of cluster techniques for complex gene expression data. Wu et al. [40] develop a clustering algorithm specifically designed to handle the complexities of gene data that can estimate the correct number of clusters and find them. Wong et al. [39] present an approach used to segment tissues in a nuclear medical imaging method known as positron emission tomography (PET). Mathieu and Gibson [26] use cluster analysis as a part of a decision support tool for large-scale research and development planning to identify programs to participate in and to determine resource allocation. Finally, Haimov et al. [8] use cluster analysis to segment radar signals in scanning land and marine objects. A problem with many of the clustering methods and applications mentioned above is that they are applicable for clustering data having numerical values for attributes. Most of the work in clustering is focused on attributes with numerical value due to the fact that it is relatively easy to define similarities from the geometric position of the numerical data. Unlike numerical data, categorical data have multi-valued attributes. Thus, similarity can be defined as common objects, common values for the attributes, and the association between the two. In such cases, the horizontal co-occurrences (common attributes for the objects) as well as the vertical co-occurrences (common values for the attributes) can be examined [40]. A number of algorithms for clustering categorical data have been proposed including work by Huang [12], Gibson et al. [5], Guha et al. [6], Ganti et al. [4], and Dempster et al. [2]. While these methods make important contributions to the issue of clustering categorical data, they are not designed to handle uncertainty in the clustering process. This is an important issue in many real world applications where there is often no sharp boundary between clusters. Recently, there has been work in the area of applying fuzzy sets in clustering categorical data including work by Huang [12] and Kim et al. [16]. However, these algorithms require multiple runs to establish the stability needed to obtain a satisfactory value for one parameter used to control the membership fuzziness. Therefore, there is a need for a robust clustering algorithm that can handle uncertainty in the process of clustering categorical data. This research proposes a clustering algorithm based on Rough Set Theory (RST). The proposed algorithm, named Min–Min-Roughness (MMR), is designed to deal with uncertainty in the process of clustering categorical data. In addition, the algorithm is implemented and tested with three real world data sets. To compare the algorithm performance in handling uncertainty, Soybean and Zoo data sets are used and the results are compared with fuzzy set theory based algorithms (including K-modes, fuzzy K-modes and fuzzy centroids). To test the applicability to large scale date sets, the Mushroom data set is used and the results are compared with Squeezer, K-modes and LCBCDC, as well as ROCK and a traditional hierarchical algorithm. The contributions of our proposed approach include: (1) Unlike previous methods, MMR gives the user the ability to handle uncertainty in the clustering process. (2) Using MMR, the user is able to obtain stable results given only one input: the number of clusters. (3) MMR has the capability of handling large data sets. This paper is structured as follows: Section 2 presents an overview of standard clustering methods existing in the literature. In Section 3, the basics of the rough set theory are introduced followed by the proposed MMR algorithm. A synthetic data set is used to illustrate the MMR algorithm. Section 4 discusses the implementation of the algorithm and the results from the application of the algorithm on Soybean, Zoo and Mushroom data sets (from the UCI Machine Learning Repository1). In addition, the comparison results are analyzed. Section 5 presents conclusions and identifies future research directions.

نتیجه گیری انگلیسی

Most algorithms designed to cluster categorical data sets are not designed to handle uncertainty in the data set. The majority of the clustering techniques implicitly assume that an object can be classified into, at most, one cluster and that all objects classified into a cluster belong to it with the same degree of confidence. However, in many applications, there can be objects that might have the potential of being classified into more than one cluster. Thus, there is a need for a clustering algorithm that can handle this uncertainty in the clustering process. The MMR algorithm proposed in this paper has potential for clustering categorical attributes in data mining. It is capable of handling the uncertainty in the clustering process. Unlike other algorithms, MMR requires only one input, the number of clusters, and has been tested to be stable. Additionally, we propose a number of future research activities related to MMR. First, we propose to explore a new stopping criterion. Instead of picking the subset of the data set with the maximum number of objects, we can first determine the distance between the objects falling under each leaf node. The leaf node with the maximum distance between the objects can be picked for splitting at the subsequent iteration. Secondly, we will extend MMR to handle both numerical and categorical data. We will explore a discretization algorithm (such as 4cDiscretizzed which is an unsupervised discretization algorithm to divide the attribute range into a constant number of intervals containing an equal number of the attribute values). Thirdly, to achieve lower computation complexity, we will study the roughness measure based on relationship between ai and the set defined as A-{ai} instead of calculating the maximum with respect to all {aj} where aj ≠ ai. Fourthly, we propose to study the approach proposed by Voges and Pope [38] and explore the potential application of evolutionary algorithms with rough sets to help determine the number of clusters in advance. Finally, more experiments need to be done on even larger data sets with more objects and more attributes.

خرید مقاله
پس از پرداخت، فوراً می توانید مقاله را دانلود فرمایید.