تصویرسازی غیر ارادی مکرر در افرادی که لکنت دارند و افرادی که لکنت ندارد
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29657||2013||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9888 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Fluency Disorders, Volume 38, Issue 3, September 2013, Pages 247–259
To compare intrusive memories in groups of people who do (PWS), and who do not (PWNS), stutter. Method Twenty-one participants who stuttered and 21 matched controls were given a semi-structured interview which explored imagery in speaking situations. The data were analyzed using a Content Analysis approach. Other outcome measures were the Beck Anxiety Inventory, the Beck Depression Inventory, the Post Traumatic Stress Disorder, PTSD, Symptom Scale: Self-Report Version. Results Significantly more stuttering participants than control participants indicated both recurrent imagery and associated memories. Content Analysis revealed themes of disfluency, anxiety, negative social evaluation, self-focus and pressure to speak that were common to both groups’ reports. Additional themes of helplessness, shame, sadness and frustration were found only in the images and memories of the stuttering group. No group differences were evident for the number of sensory modalities involved in images and memories, or for ratings of their vividness or strength of associated emotions, or on self-reports of depression, anxiety and trauma. Conclusions Recurrent imagery about events in childhood is a potent factor in the memories of PWS. It is worth modifying interventions that have been successfully applied for treating social anxiety for use with people who stutter. Educational objectives: After reading this article, participants will be able to: (a) identify the role of intrusive memories in psychiatric disorders and stuttering; (b) investigate how DSM criteria can be employed with people who stutter; (c) employ anxiety instruments used for assessing psychiatric disorders for stuttering; (d) distinguish between the intrusive memories experienced by people who stutter, and people who do not stutter; (e) apply treatments for intrusive memories in psychiatric disorders to work with people who stutter.
Repetitive, involuntary imagery of traumatic events, often triggered by situations containing reminders of these events, is a symptom of posttraumatic stress disorder. It is now known, however, that similar involuntary (spontaneously occurring) imagery of frightening, humiliating, or distressing events is a common feature of many other psychiatric conditions including depression and anxiety disorders (Brewin, Gregory, Lipton, & Burgess, 2010). Since people who stutter (PWS) have been reported to experience fear and distress in relation to their communication (Hancock et al., 1998) it is possible that images related to past embarrassing or painful events, particularly those involving speaking in social situations, may lead PWS to experience anxiety about speaking. This may lead to an increased effort not to stutter which, in turn, would make fluent speech more difficult (Johnson, 1972). Alternatively, involuntary imagery may motivate avoidance behavior (Van Riper, 1971). Consistent with these views, research with PWS has revealed experiences that include negative reactions to their speech, insensitivity of listeners (such as others being impatient, completing their sentences, laughing and imitating their speech), exclusion of the individual (being ignored and overlooked in school and the workplace) and poor self-image (Corcoran and Stewart, 1998, Crichton-Smith, 2002 and Klompas and Ross, 2004). However, direct evidence about the possible role of involuntary imagery and its consequences has not been reported in PWS.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Mann–Whitney U tests revealed no significant differences between the scores of PWS and PWNS on any of the measures of anxiety (z = .151, p = .880), depression (z = 151, p = .743) and PTSD symptoms (z = 1.404, p = .160). The check for current psychiatric problems in PWS with the SCID-I/NP ( First et al., 2002) revealed that one met diagnostic criteria for panic disorder and social anxiety disorder, another met criteria for social anxiety disorder, and a third met criteria for generalized anxiety disorder. One PWNS met diagnostic criteria for panic disorder. Thus, the speaker groups were similar in terms of their clinical profiles as Miller and Watson (1992) reported. Thus it appears that self-reports of depression, anxiety and trauma were similar for both groups.