عوامل محدود کننده توسعه مدیریت پروژه حرفه ای در صنعت ساخت و ساز در چین
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|2969||2004||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5230 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Project Management, Volume 22, Issue 3, April 2004, Pages 203–211
This paper introduces a survey aimed at identifying the underlying factors that constraint the development of professional project management in China's construction industry. Professional construction project management, which is known as construction supervision (CS) in China, was introduced into China's construction industry in 1988. After more than 10 years of rapid growth, the further development of CS is challenged by a number of arising problems. Based on the findings of the survey, this paper highlights the most significant factors causing these problems. These factors are related not only to CS companies, but also to clients, other construction professionals, and the environment of the construction market. It is anticipated that the discussion of these factors will provide a basis for future strategies to promote the development of CS in China and also provide a useful reference for other developing countries which face similar problems in promoting the applications of professional construction project management in the construction industry.
Since the reforming and open door policy started in the end of 1970s, China has accelerated its economic development with an impressive rate and has risen as an important economic force in the world. There can be no economic activity without construction. To accommodate the national rapid economic expansion demands for building and infrastructure, China's construction industry has achieved extraordinary growth and dramatic development in the past two decades. However, there were no independent professional project management companies in the Chinese construction market until 1988. At that time, the practice of establishing a construction project in China always involved a temporary organization, the Project Preparatory Office (PPO). This was set up by the project client to take on the duty of project management on behalf of the client. A PPO usually comprised of a number of in-house staff of the client, and a few external technical persons appointed by the client. The majority of PPO members had not gone through the necessary project management training and lacked sufficient knowledge, skills and experience to manage a project successfully. Moreover, the PPO ceased to exist when the project was completed and the in-house staff involved in managing the project would shift to other positions within the client's organization. The valuable experience and knowledge accumulated by these people through practice was rarely reused in future construction projects funded by other clients. Under PPO practice, it was not uncommon to find projects with cost overruns, poor quality and time delays . Professional construction project management, known as construction supervision (CS) in China, was introduced by the Ministry of Construction in 1988 to replace the traditional PPO practice. Given China's unique economic and political environment, it is natural that CS should have some different characteristics compared with its counterpart-construction project management in the West, but the essence of these two systems is quite similar. A comparison between them is given in Table 1. The booming construction market, together with strong support from the government, has led to the rapid development of CS over the past decade in China. CS companies have been playing a more and more important role in the construction market. The number of construction supervision companies has increased from 52 in 1989 to 5123 in 2000 . Currently, around 197,990 persons are engaged in CS. Compared with 1400 in 1989, the average annual growth rate is around 64%, which is much higher than the total labour force growth in the construction industry during the same period . The use of CS has become a mandatory requirement for five kinds of projects, namely national key projects, large-scale public projects, large-scale housing projects, projects funded or aided by foreign loans and special projects . In 1998, about 41% of public projects were managed by CS companies . The emergence and growth of CS dramatically improved the performance of construction project management in China. Notable quality improvements, cost reductions and time shortening have been observed in a variety of projects managed by CS companies. Many large and complex projects, such as the Jing-Jin-Tang Highway, the Beijing-Kowloon Railway and the Shanghai Yangpu Bridge, were constructed successfully with the CS management approach . The success of this system in its initial 5 years was so significant that the Ministry of Construction listed “Promoting the development of the construction supervision system” as one of 17 crucial items in the long-term guidelines for China's construction reform drafted in 1993 . From a long-term perspective, the development of CS system is depended on the sustainable improvement of the performance of CS companies in the industry rather than the increasing of the number of the practitioners. As the CS system expanded in China's construction industry, a number of problems gradually arose. It was widely recognized that these problems could obstruct CS's future in China if they were not treated correctly . These problems typically appear in the following five aspects , ,  and : • The qualification and size of CS companies. Although the number of CS companies keeps on increasing, the qualification and size of most CS companies have not risen correspondingly. Currently, about 90% of the CS companies in China are Class Two or Three, with employees numbering below 50. • The operation of CS companies. The profit margins in the CS market have decreased seriously in recent years. The operation of CS companies is very difficult. In order to survive, many CS companies are struggling to find enough work through all kinds of channels. • The scope of the work. The scope of CS companies’ work is mainly limited to the construction stage. In fact, most CS companies only take on the duty of construction site supervision, and seldom participate in the conception, feasibility study and design stages. • Clients’ complaints. Many clients complain that the projects managed by CS companies fail to address the typical triple objectives (i.e. cost, time and quality) and other expectations. • Other construction professionals’ views. There is a certain amount of scepticism amongst designers and contractors about the existence of separate CS companies in China's construction market. It was believed that these problems might be related to many aspects of China's construction industry. However, little has been done to examine the underlying factors behind these phenomena. Through a research survey, this paper attempts to reveal these constraint factors from the viewpoint of CS engineers.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This paper investigates the factors constraining CS development in China through a survey among CS engineers. The views of the respondents provide a true reflection of the main aspects of China's CS. The results indicate that most CS practitioners have an engineering or technical background; state-owned and collective-owned companies are the dominant force in the CS market; most CS companies are small- and medium-sized with less than 50 employees; there is a clear gap between the services supplied by the CS engineers and the services demanded by the clients. The survey reveals ten most significant constraint factors from the viewpoint of CS engineers. These factors are related not only to CS companies and practitioners, but also to clients, other professionals and the external environment. It is argued that these four categories of factors reinforce each other and form a vicious circle to hamper the development of CS. The remedies for overcoming these constraints lie with the roles of various parties in the CS system, since the establishment of a proper market and legal environment for CS depends heavily on the progress of the national reform. Cooperation with foreign project management companies, educating clients and other professionals and facilitating the external environment change should also be considered.