استفاده از فیس بوک، حسادت و افسردگی در میان دانشجویان: آیا استفاده از فیس بوک، افسرده کننده است؟
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29798||2015||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6590 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 43, February 2015, Pages 139–146
It is not—unless it triggers feelings of envy. This study uses the framework of social rank theory of depression and conceptualizes Facebook envy as a possible link between Facebook surveillance use and depression among college students. Using a survey of 736 college students, we found that the effect of surveillance use of Facebook on depression is mediated by Facebook envy. However, when Facebook envy is controlled for, Facebook use actually lessens depression.
For young adults, the transition to college life can be daunting. It can mean gaining unprecedented freedom, moving far from home, making new platonic and romantic relationships, and enduring a large amount of homework and exams. Because of these factors and others, college students have been found to be particularly prone to depression (Mahmoud et al., 2012, Moreno et al., 2011, Moreno et al., 2012, Neighmond, 2011 and Wright et al., 2012). Individuals between 18 and 24 years old were specifically found likely to suffer from depressive disorder symptoms, according to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC., 2011). Studies also found an increasing incidence of depression among college students in recent years (AP, 2010 and Neighmond, 2011). A study in 2010 discovered that “five times as many high school and college students are dealing with anxiety and other mental health issues as youth of the same age who were studied in the Great Depression era” (AP, 2010). Multiple factors likely contribute to the increase in incidence of depression including better diagnostics and attention paid by higher education health professionals to student wellbeing. However, policy makers and scholars have hypothesized that heavy use of online social networks such as Facebook and mobile technologies may contribute to the phenomenon (Chou and Edge, 2012, Jelenchick et al., 2013, Moreno et al., 2011 and Soo Jeong et al., 2013). Facebook allows college students to express themselves by posting status updates, links, and photos. It also allows them to observe others’ online presence by keeping track of regular updates about their family, friends, classmates, and acquaintances (Ellison et al., 2007 and Smock et al., 2011). But while Facebook has been shown to elicit happiness (Kim & Lee, 2011), it is also prone to problematic use, such as when young users post photos of them drinking or in sexually suggestive poses (Karl, Peluchette, & Schlaegel, 2010). Facebook also raises questions about privacy and deception (Carlson et al., 2004, Christofides et al., 2009, Debatin et al., 2009 and Hong et al., 2012) and new studies argue whether or not heavy Facebook use can lead to depression (Jelenchick et al., 2013, Moreno et al., 2012 and Wright et al., 2012). The link between Facebook use and depression among college students is starting to attract scholarly attention, but scholars disagree about the nature of the relationship. Some have questioned whether the relationship exists at all. A study found a weak statistical association between internet use and depression, although the researchers concluded the relationship was unlikely to have major clinical significance (Moreno et al., 2012). Another study discovered that the number of hours students spend on Facebook was positively correlated with depression (Wright et al., 2012). However, another study found no link between Facebook use and depression, concluding that “advising adolescent patients or parents on the risks of ‘Facebook depression’ may be premature” (Jelenchick et al., 2013, p. 130). The present study aims to contribute to this growing area of important research by examining whether or not heavy Facebook use leads to depression among college students.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This study offers social rank theory as a useful framework to understand the complex process of depression among college students. The link between envy and depression has been established in many studies about offline communication. In this study, we hope to contribute to this stream of research by applying the theoretical link to online interactions, particularly on Facebook. Today’s college students spend a considerable amount of time online, especially on Facebook. But by just blaming Facebook as a cause for depression, we miss a complex but important process that points to perceptions of subordination. We fail to acknowledge that for many people, using Facebook is a gratifying experience that can even lessen depression. In order to address depression among college students, we must understand the complex process to be able to better devise an intervention. If college students are aware of the potential hazards resulting in time spent on Facebook, they may curb their usage or become more cognizant of the negative feelings of envy resulting in exposure to others’ personal information. If an individual can more quickly identify a negative feeling as envy, they may react and find some form of help swiftly enough to avoid symptoms of depression. Support networks such as friends, parents and teachers can also better help people deal with depression armed with the knowledge that a possible underlying cause is the feeling of subordination. Strategies such as affirmation or offering words of encouragement might work to ease feelings of subordination that underlie depression. These interventions might even be in the form of encouraging Facebook posts (Moreno et al., 2011, Soo Jeong et al., 2013 and Wright et al., 2012) that can help lessen depression. It is not the social medium itself that is to blame for depression but the feelings that it might trigger, particularly Facebook envy, something that cannot be sweepingly expected of all Facebook users. Our findings point to the important factor of how communication platforms and individual dispositions intersect. This study is constrained by several limitations. First, we have not accounted for other explanations of depression among college students, with our final mediation model accounting for only about 30% of the variance in depression. Other factors, such as personality types and offline situations, also contribute to depression among college students. Second, envy takes on many forms and is influenced by a multitude of factors. Facebook use is just among the many factors that contribute to feelings of envy. Considering that envy significantly predicts depression—consistent with social rank theory—future studies should also look into other possible predictors of envy. Third, survey method has its limitations as it relies heavily on self-reports. Though we used a reliable and validated depression scale (Radloff, 1991), some participants might not have reported the actual extent to which they experienced the depression symptoms, probably out of social desirability bias that usually affects survey research. Finally, while we sought out all students for an introductory level journalism class, our findings are not generalizable to the entire population of college students. However, our primary goal in this exploratory study is to test the theoretical relationships between the variables of interest. Our sample of 736 students had enough statistical power to establish the relationships we found. Constrained by these limitations, we still hope that our findings can contribute to a better understanding of the intricate pathways from online social interactions to bouts with depression that plague our college students. This is an important discourse, and we hope we have contributed something useful to address this ongoing problem, no matter how modest.