محرک های رانندگی دسترسی به مفاهیم مربوط به خشونت در رانندگان "عصبانی" را افزایش می دهد
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29848||2015||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 55, Issue 2, July 2013, Pages 135–140
Stimuli present in aversive situations (even initially neutral stimuli) can become associated with aggressive feelings and thoughts become capable of acting as cues for aggressive thoughts. The present research examined whether driving stimuli can serve as triggers for aggression-related concepts for individuals predisposed to becoming angry while driving (i.e., high in self-reported trait driving anger). Using the General Aggression Model (Anderson & Bushman, 2002) as a guide, two studies demonstrated that participants high in trait driving anger responded more quickly to aggressive words when paired with driving than neutral stimuli. There were no differences in primes for nonaggressive words and nonwords. Study 2 also found that, for participants high in driving anger, increased accessibility of aggressive words following driving primes predicted self-reported anger in a provoking driving scenario.
Over 80% of Americans drive to work; those commuting spend over 50 min per day in their cars (U.S. Census Bureau, 2011). Unfortunately, this greater frequency of driving increases the likelihood of drivers becoming angry and aggressive while on the roadways. According to a U.S. News and World Report survey, over 90% of drivers surveyed reported that they had either witnessed another driver being angry or became angry themselves behind the wheel (Haupt, 2012). One dispositional factor influencing driver aggression that has received some attention has been trait driving anger (i.e., the extent to which drivers chronically become angry behind the wheel; Deffenbacher, Lynch, Oetting, & Yingling, 2001). Indeed, individuals high in trait driving anger (as measured by the Driving Anger Scale; DAS; Deffenbacher, Oetting, & Lynch, 1994) have an increased likelihood of experiencing anger more frequently and intensely in driving-related situations as compared to those low in driving anger. Further, high-DAS individuals have a greater likelihood of engaging in aggressive driving behaviors despite driving the same amount of time and distances as low-DAS individuals (Deffenbacher, Deffenbacher, Lynch, & Richards, 2003a). James and Nahl (1998) have suggested that aggressive driving behaviors are a direct result of negative affective states (e.g., irritation), suggesting that aggressive driving acts similarly to other forms of anger. However, trait driving anger seems to be unique from other forms of anger, and only moderate correlations have been found between DAS and Trait Anger Scale (TAS) measures (Nesbit, Conger, & Conger, 2007). Specifically, trait driving anger seems context-specific and functions as a trait expressed within a driving context (Deffenbacher et al., 2003a). Therefore, we believe that the driving context may be responsible for activation of these aggression-related concepts for high-DAS individuals, independent of individuals’ general trait anger.