تفاوت های شخصیتی و فردی در واکنش به حوادث تحریک خشونت در میان زندانیان و غیر زندانیان
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29863||2013||5 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||3970 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 55, Issue 8, November 2013, Pages 947–951
This paper examines the relationships between individual differences in situational triggers of aggressive behaviors (STAR) and the FFM personality traits. The investigation, conducted among Polish male and female offenders and students, revealed different relationships across samples. Among students, higher sensitivity to frustration and provocation was related to higher Neuroticism and lower Agreeableness and sensitivity to provoking situations to lower Openness to Experience. Among prisoners, however, lower Agreeableness was negatively linked to being more sensitive to provocation. Furthermore, the study found sex differences in STAR scales in the student sample but not the prisoners’ sample.
Many theoretical models, including the General Model of Aggression, stress the importance of both individual and situational factors in aggression (Anderson & Bushman, 2002). Anderson, Benjamin, Wood, and Bonacci (2006) have highlighted four main ways in which situational and individual factors can influence aggression and those factors may interact. First, both factors may interact (e.g. trait aggressive individuals may become more aggressive under provocation). Second, repeated experience of a situation can lead to changes in personality (e.g. watching repeated violence can lead to stable increases in aggressive personality). Third, personality can influence the situations one is exposed to (e.g. aggressive individuals frequent more violent places). Finally, personality can alter the situation to make it more aggressive (e.g. aggressive individuals act negatively towards others – which make others more hostile to them). However, Lawrence (2006) has pointed out that little attention has been paid to individual differences in responses to situational triggering factors. Lawrence (2006) argued that people may vary in their sensitivity to certain situational aggressive triggers – in particular provocations and frustrations. In order to measure individual differences in responding to various situations, Lawrence (2006) developed the Situational Triggers of Aggressive Response (STAR) scale, consisting of two factors – sensitivity to frustrations (SF) and sensitivity to provocations (SP). SF reflects proneness to feel particularly aggressive in response to having one’s goals blocked and to uncontrollable negative events. SP measures predisposition to feel aggressive in reaction to goading and provocation from others. While SP and SF are typically related ( Lawrence, 2006), they offer differential prediction of relevant different cognitions and behaviors. For example, SP, but not SF scores predict individuals’ susceptibility to perceive the provoking behavior of others as more aggressive ( Lawrence & Hodgkins, 2009), and aggressive behavior towards a provoking individual ( Lawrence & Hutchinson, 2013). Indeed, when SF is controlled for in these analyses, the effect of SP remains ( Lawrence & Hutchinson, 2013).