سربازان بدبختی: بررسی اختلال سه گانه تاریک و تجربه خوشحالی از بد حالی دیگران
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|29933||2014||5 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4390 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 67, September 2014, Pages 64–68
This study was the first to investigate the relation between Dark Triad personality traits and the experience of schadenfreude. Participants (N = 120) were assigned to one of three priming conditions: empathy, schadenfreude, or neutral. After reading a vignette priming one of the three emotional states, each participant was exposed to a photographic image showing an unfortunate event experienced by the individual described in the vignette. All participants were shown the same four images and completed an evaluation form about their subjective emotional reactions to each image. Further, their facial expression reactions to each image were video-recorded and coded for smile presence and intensity. Results indicated positive relationships between Dark Triad traits and both self-reported schadenfreude and objective smile intensity. Higher Dark Triad scores also were associated with self-reported increased schadenfreude in daily life and a propensity to seek out related stimuli.
The popularity of television shows such as American Idol and YouTube videos depicting “fails” indicates that there is a widespread interest in laughing at others’ misfortunes. This common affective experience, in which an observer derives pleasure from another’s misfortune, is schadenfreude (Takahashi et al., 2009). Unlike sadism, which involves deriving pleasure from directly causing the misfortune or pain in another person, schadenfreude is associated with pleasure from a physical and psychological distance. However, both involve a failure to experience empathy (e.g., Cikara, Bruneau, & Saxe, 2011) suggesting that they may not be discrete entities but rather exist on a continuum (Buckels, 2012). Factors that promote schadenfreude include a personal gain of some sort (e.g., watching a fellow employee get demoted), envy (e.g., hearing about a wealthy celebrity’s downfall), and the deservingness of the target (e.g., observing a student who is caught cheating; Feather et al., 2001 and Smith et al., 2009). Of the three factors, the perception of target deservingness appears to be the most robust factor to elicit schadenfreude (Feather et al., 2001). An example of where the role of deservingness in schadenfreude may feature prominently is in the courtroom, in which the public (and thus, jury members) derive pleasure from observing a (perceived) deserving offender experience harsh sentencing for his/her wrongdoing. Little research has addressed the observation that some people seem to experience more frequent and intense schadenfreude than others. However, some work has examined individual differences in sadistic interests. For example, psychopathy consistently has been related to sadism (e.g., Porter et al., 2003 and Woodworth et al., 2013). Given the profound trait empathy deficit associated with psychopathy and required for the state of schadenfreude, it is possible that they also may be linked. Further, psychopathy has been linked to laughing at others for the purpose of harming them (Proyer, Flisch, Tschupp, Platt, & Ruch, 2012). Related work indicates that psychopaths exhibit negative (e.g., maladaptive, aggressive) humour styles (Veselka, Schermer, Martin, & Vernon, 2010). Research also has established a link between schadenfreude and the other two Dark Triad traits, Machiavellianism and narcissism. For example, there is a relationship between each of psychopathy and Machiavellianism with positive emotions elicited by sad images (Ali, Amorim, & Chamorro-Premuzic, 2009), consistent with the concepts of sadism and schadenfreude. Further, Krizan and Johar (2012) found that vulnerable narcissism (e.g., having a heightened sensitivity to critique and disapproval) was related to schadenfreude and envy. Recently, Buckels (2012) proposed that “everyday sadism” should be included with the Dark Triad constructs to form the “Dark Tetrad”. Everyday sadism can be conceptualized as a nonclinical form of sadism, differing from clinical sadism in that the individual does not harm others out of the need for cruelty but rather for the pleasure derived from the act (Buckels, 2012), making it more closely related to the concept of schadenfreude. While Buckels specifically highlighted the importance of examining individual differences, particularly dark personality traits, in the expression of schadenfreude, surprisingly no research has directly examined this relationship. The current study sought to examine the experiences of schadenfreude and empathy in relation to the Dark Triad. Schadenfreude was assessed through self-report measures coupled with objective coding of smile intensity of observers who viewed an image depicting a primed target experiencing an unfortunate event. It was hypothesized that Dark Triad features, particularly psychopathy, would be related to increased schadenfreude. Further, given the role of deservingness in schadenfreude it was hypothesized that a greater intensity of schadenfreude would be present in response to targets who had engaged in criminal behavior (i.e., legal stimuli; Feather et al., 2001) than those who experienced a non-legal misfortune (i.e., non-legal stimuli). It also was predicted that emotional facial expressions of happiness, as inferred from smile intensity, would indicate that participants experienced more schadenfreude than they self-reported, and that the difference between high Dark Triad scorers’ self-reported and objective schadenfreude would be greater than for lower scorers (given their propensity to use deception and self-enhancement).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The mean score on the SRP-4 for the total sample was 139.65 (SD = 22.47), with total scores ranging from 100 to 212. The mean score on the MACH-IV for the total sample was 86.59 (SD = 10.8), with total scores ranging from 64 to 118. The mean score on the NPI for the total sample was 13.45 (SD = 6.7), with total scores ranging from 1 to 31. The mean score on the Dark Triad composite measure (a z score) for the total sample was 0 (SD = .79), with total scores ranging from −1.47 to 1.97. Independent-sample t tests revealed that males scored significantly higher than females on Dark Triad composite scores, t(120) = 2.19, p < .05 and on SRP-4 total scores, t(120) = 3.86, p < .001. Results of the Dark Triad measures broken down by gender are presented in Table 1.