ساختار نظریه های مدیریت پروژه : پژوهش های گذشته, پرسش ها برای آینده
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|3001||2004||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6774 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Project Management, Volume 22, Issue 3, April 2004, Pages 183–191
Project management has long been considered as an academic field for planning-oriented techniques and, in many respects, an application of engineering science and optimization theory. Much research has also been devoted to the search for the generic factors of project success. Project management has, however, in the last decade received wider interest from other academic disciplines. As the field rapidly expands, the need for an internal discussion and debate about project management research increases. Project management and project organization is a complex subject and, we argue, is usefully examined from several perspectives. In this paper we discuss the emerging perspectives within the project field. The paper also presents a number of questions that project research to a greater extent should acknowledge. The questions concern issues such as why project organizations exist, how they behave and why they differ. The principal argument is that too much effort has been dedicated to clarifying the reasons of project success and failure, while downplaying a number of important research questions that need to be discussed in order to further the knowledge about project management.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The present article has stressed the importance of studying projects as organizations and focusing on how they differ and behave. The article has suggested an agenda for future research into some of the fundamentals of project management research. The standpoint was strongly theoretical, illuminating the importance of a lively and critical debate on project management research also from “classic scientific” standpoints. It was stressed that the basic assumptions frequently are not explicitly stated. Recent trends in “project research” point to “project management research” as widening its interest to also include company-wide issues, such as the management of project-based firms, project-based industries, project-based careers (cf. ). This trend further increases the need for an internal debate about the identity of project management research. Could it be more appropriate to talk about various levels of analysis in “project research”, rather than linking everything to the single project? Finally, the article pointed out five key questions for project management research. We stressed the need to develop various theories of projects in a similar tradition as has been done within the broader field of management research. It was stated that questions such as why projects exist and why they differ must not be forgotten in order to expand our knowledge and encourage cross-fertilization among perspectives. A theory of projects cannot be built on merely empirical insights, but has also to be driven by a particular theoretical perspective. It was argued that such perspectives exist in other fields and it should be plausible to try them out also in a project context. However, without forgetting the special traits of projects as empirical entities. We need to discuss and develop concepts in order to understand the plurality currently under way within the field of project research. It is truly a research field that might not only improve the management and organization of single projects, but also improve the effectiveness of many companies and entire industries.