مقایسه تفسیری مفاهیم روابط ساختار کاری مدیریت پروژه بین کشورهای غربی و چین
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|3003||2004||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Project Management, Volume 22, Issue 5, July 2004, Pages 397–406
Recent moves to introduce Western project management processes into China recall the need for caution in transferring management theories and practices across cultures. Not only are there a number of well-known contrasts between Chinese and Western cultural values that shape management beliefs in important ways, but also evidence shows that the cross-cultural transfer of management processes in general is not always successful. In this paper we report an empirical comparison of matched samples of Chinese and Western construction project managers’ conceptions of their work. We adopt the interpretive research approach known as phenomenography, developed for the purpose of understanding the different ways in which people conceive given aspects of their reality. Many of the study’s findings in both cultures relate to the primary importance of relationships in construction project management work. At the same time the study highlights fundamental differences in conception of the meaning and significance of different forms of relationship in construction project management work that have implications for practice.
During the last 50 years the professional discipline of project management has become well established in the Western business world. Until recently China has been relatively isolated from the influence of Western management practices, and there has in China been no comparable parallel development of the profession of project management. However, since the Chinese economic reforms of the 1980s, Western project management has become increasingly recognized in China as a management approach with potentially broad application. In the recent history of the Chinese construction sector, which had a legacy of poor performance, significant progress has been made towards the adoption of a commercial approach, including the introduction of Western project management concepts and processes. With the deepening of these reforms it is worth examining the extent to which Western project management ideas have been supported by the Chinese culture. Many cross-cultural studies have shown that different cultures support different sets of management beliefs and practices, particularly when those cultures reflect fundamentally different conceptions of reality. For example, Laurent  revealed significant cultural diversity among managers from 10 European countries in relation to their conceptions of the function of management. Pant et al.  found that matrix organizational structures do not work as well in Nepal as they do in the West due to the greater bureaucratic orientation of Nepalese managers. England  explored limits to the applicability in the US context of the Theory Z management norm  that has been successful in Japan. A study by Easterby-Smith et al.  concluded that Chinese concerns for relationships, group harmony and ‘face’ limit the adoption in China of established aspects of Western human resource management practice. Building on studies such as these we argue in the following section that, because of certain well-known areas of difference between the two cultures, Chinese and Western project managers’ conceptions of construction project management work are likely to be different. We generate seven theoretical propositions concerning the implications of cultural differences for Chinese and Western project managers’ conceptions of their work. We then describe the methods and results of an interpretive empirical study designed to examine the propositions. We find support in our data for all our propositions, with differences in conception of relationships emerging as a particularly strong central source of explanation of cultural differences as a whole. We conclude with a discussion of the implications of our findings for research and practice.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This paper began by identifying a need to understand the implications of Chinese/Western cultural differences for project managers’ conceptions of their work. Citing published cross-cultural studies we have argued that some of the basic conceptions underlying established Western project management practice will not necessarily be supported by Chinese culture. Seven theoretical propositions predicting likely differences between Chinese and Western conceptions were developed. The propositions were tested using an interpretive approach designed to emphasize differences in people’s conception of any given aspect of reality. All seven propositions are, to a greater or lesser extent, supported by our data. The findings reinforce our understanding that, although both Chinese and Western cultures are undergoing change , the dominant deep-rooted cultural values and beliefs are not easily left behind but rather are being revived and enhanced . In particular, our data confirm the central role of relationships in Chinese culture. Some studies (see, for example  and ) suggest that the weakness of China’s legislation system and the lack of institutional protection have promoted its relationship culture. This is not evident in our study. The adoption of Western project management processes in the Chinese construction sector has been accompanied by the introduction of relevant laws and regulatory procedures, such as enforced tendering and bidding procedures and the use of specific contract conditions. Our findings suggest that despite the introduction of this new legislation Chinese project managers still see relationships as more important than contractual arrangements. In organizational and cultural literature, management processes in China have long been recognized as heavily influenced by their relationship mechanisms . However, despite the acknowledged importance of relationships in Chinese business affairs  very few studies have examined how this contrasts with business relationships in Western culture. Our study demonstrates that placing a high value on relationships is not unique to Chinese managers – UK managers also consider good relationships at work to be important. However, this study reveals important differences in the meanings attributed by Chinese and UK managers to what is meant by good relationships. The findings of this study are, of course, based on a limited sample of managers from a single industry, and caution should be exercised in generalizing to contexts other than construction projects. There is a continuing need to update our knowledge about why, how, and with what consequence Chinese and Western managers’ conceptions of the same kind of work activities differ. In summary, we recommend that practical considerations in specific situations should be based on the knowledge that project management is not universal but culture-sensitive. When transferring its theories and practices across cultures, it is necessary to take account of the implications of cultural differences for people’s conceptions of those theories and practices. In particular we recommend that: • There should be more research into the effectiveness and applicability of the laws and regulatory procedures relating to construction project management in China that have been newly introduced based on practices in the West. • Chinese organizations need to be aware of their project managers’ dislike of the matrix organizational structure and preference to work with their long-term team and subcontractors when adopting the Western project management processes. • When negotiating and managing joint venture projects both Chinese and Western organizations need to pay attention to cultural differences between managers’ conceptions of their work, particularly those relevant to relationships, in order to adapt practices and foster successful collaboration. Training in cross-cultural issues should be based on conceptual frameworks that are both up-to-date and relevant.