هنگامی که بالا شما را پایین می آورد: اثرات حرکات عمودی تصور بر انگیزش، عملکرد و رفتار مصرف کننده
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|30045||2014||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||11059 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Consumer Psychology, Volume 24, Issue 2, April 2014, Pages 271–283
Previous embodied cognition research suggests that “up” is associated with positivity (e.g., good, divine), whereas “down” is associated with negativity (e.g., bad, evil). We focus on the effect of vertical movements on consumer behavior and go beyond investigating mere affective associations of verticality. In five studies, we provide evidence that the mental simulation of vertical movements has counterintuitive effects on behavior—that is, imagining moving up hampers motivation and performance by boosting self-worth. A pilot study shows that the imagination of vertical movements affects self-worth. Studies 1, 2 and 3 show that imagining upward movements (e.g., taking an elevator ride up or taking off in an airplane) diminishes motivation as well as performance. Studies 4 and 5 show that imagining moving upward (downward) makes people feel better (worse) about themselves which, in turn, decreases (increases) their motivation to succeed on a subsequent task, hence worsening (improving) performance. This occurs independently of respondents' mood.
Advertising and other media often evoke images of vertical movements in which people move up or down (e.g., taking an elevator, taking off or landing in an airplane). As an example, consider television advertisements (ads), such as Gillette Venus “elevator ad,” Delta Airlines “keep climbing,” and Jimmy Johns “55th floor,” that show people moving upward. We suggest that, in addition to the intended message (e.g., Jimmy John's delivers fast), ads that prompt the imagination of vertical movements might have unexpected consequences on consumers' self-worth and behavior. The field of embodied cognition has produced considerable evidence that sensory-motor experiences can affect perception and judgment through metaphorical associations (e.g., Hung and Labroo, 2010, Krishna, 2012, Lee and Schwarz, 2010, Li et al., 2010, Meier et al., 2007, Meier and Robinson, 2004, Schubert, 2005, Schubert and Koole, 2009 and Williams and Bargh, 2008). Among the phenomena investigated by that research are the associations between up and positivity (e.g., good, divine, virtue, power) and between down and negativity (e.g., bad, vice, evil; Meier et al., 2007, Meier and Robinson, 2004 and Schubert, 2005). That work, however, does not clarify the behavioral consequences of imagined vertical movements. Our work moves beyond merely documenting metaphorical associations of sensory-motor experiences and identifies a counterintuitive phenomenon. That is, mentally simulating upward movements results in lower motivation and worse performance, whereas the opposite is true for downward movements. This finding qualifies existing embodied cognition theory that associates the concept of up exclusively with positivity and the concept of down exclusively with negativity, by showing that upward (downward) verticality, when experienced as movement (i.e., going up/down), can result in negative (positive) outcomes. Furthermore, we contribute to the embodied cognition literature by uncovering theory-substantiated mediators that explain the effects of imagined vertical movements on cognitive performance. In doing so, we follow the recommendations of Meier, Schnall, Schwarz, and Bargh (2012) for research on embodied cognition by (a) examining the theoretical process behind the observed metaphorical effects, and (b) including action-relevant outcome measures. In sum, the present research uncovers unexpected effects of vertical imagery commonly used in advertising and how they impact consumer preferences. For instance, consider an ad showing people going up in an elevator. When consumers are exposed to this ad, they may mentally simulate upward movements and be less motivated to perform a variety of tasks such as working toward a reward, successfully processing information-rich brand materials, or decoding complex pricing schemes
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی