رفتاردرمانی شناختی پیشرفته برای بزرگسالان با بی اشتهایی عصبی: یک مطالعه بریتانیایی ـ ایتالیایی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|30055||2012||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5308 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 51, Issue 1, January 2013, Pages R2–R8
Anorexia nervosa is difficult to treat and no treatment is supported by robust evidence. As it is uncommon, it has been recommended that new treatments should undergo extensive preliminary testing before being evaluated in randomized controlled trials. The aim of the present study was to establish the immediate and longer-term outcome following “enhanced” cognitive behaviour therapy (CBT-E). Ninety-nine adult patients with marked anorexia nervosa (body mass index ≤ 17.5) were recruited from consecutive referrals to clinics in the UK and Italy. Each was offered 40 sessions of CBT-E over 40 weeks with no concurrent treatment. Sixty-four percent of the patients were able to complete this outpatient treatment and in these patients there was a substantial increase in weight (7.47 kg, SD 4.93) and BMI (2.77, SD 1.81). Eating disorder features also improved markedly. Over the 60-week follow-up period there was little deterioration despite minimal additional treatment. These findings provide strong preliminary support for this use of CBT-E and justify its further evaluation in randomized controlled trials. As CBT-E has already been established as a treatment for bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified, the findings also confirm that CBT-E is transdiagnostic in its scope.
Anorexia nervosa in adulthood has been described as “one of the most difficult psychiatric disorders to treat” (Halmi et al., 2005). Reluctance to engage in treatment is common, and in those who do accept treatment the outcome is often poor. Hospitalization is essential in some cases and it generally results in weight gain, but it is expensive and disruptive and often followed by weight loss (Carter et al., 2009; Kaplan et al., 2009; Walsh et al., 2006). A treatment that produced enduring change would be of great value, especially if it were deliverable on an outpatient basis (Bulik, Berkman, Brownley, Sedway, & Lohr, 2007). Anorexia nervosa is also difficult to study (Agras et al., 2004; Bulik et al., 2007; Fairburn, 2005; Halmi, 2008; Lock et al., 2012). This is because of its relative rarity, the associated medical risks, the lengthy duration of treatment, and the importance of follow-up to determine whether treatment effects persist over time. Nine studies of psychosocial treatments have been published (Bulik et al., 2007) and several have run into major difficulties (Halmi et al., 2005; Lock et al., 2012). Almost all the studies have been small in size, the average number of patients per condition being less than 20. These methodological challenges, together with the disappointing or inconclusive results of the studies to date, have led to the suggestion that new treatments for anorexia nervosa should undergo extensive preliminary testing before being considered eligible for evaluation in randomized controlled trials (Agras et al., 2004; Fairburn, 2005; Halmi et al., 2005; Lock et al., 2012). Alternatively it has been proposed that the focus of research should shift away from adults and on to the treatment of adolescents as they appear to be easier both to treat and to study (Halmi, 2008). Cognitive behaviour therapy is a potential candidate as an outpatient treatment for anorexia nervosa since it is the leading empirically supported treatment for bulimia nervosa (National Institute for Clinical Excellence, 2004; Shapiro et al., 2007), a disorder with overlapping psychopathology. The cognitive behavioural treatment for bulimia nervosa has recently been adapted with the goal of making it suitable for any form of eating disorder, including anorexia nervosa (Fairburn, 2008; Fairburn, Cooper, & Shafran, 2003). To this end, the new “enhanced” form of the treatment (CBT-E) focuses on modifying the mechanisms thought to perpetuate all forms of eating disorder psychopathology (Fairburn et al., 2003). The treatment has been shown in two independent studies (combined N = 245) to produce sustained change in those eating disorder patients who are not significantly underweight, whatever their DSM diagnosis ( Byrne, Fursland, Allen, & Watson, 2011; Fairburn et al., 2009). The utility of the treatment with the remaining eating disorder patients, those with anorexia nervosa, has yet to be established. In light of the recommendation that new treatments for adults with anorexia nervosa undergo extensive preliminary evaluation, we studied the effects of CBT-E in two representative, markedly affected, patient samples. Many of these patients would ordinarily have been hospitalised. We chose to include patients who were significantly underweight in order to test the full potential of the new treatment. The study was designed to address four key clinical questions. First, among adults with marked anorexia nervosa, what proportion is able to complete this outpatient treatment? Second, among those patients who can complete the treatment, what is their outcome? Third, are the changes sustained? And fourth, are there baseline variables that predict treatment completion? By studying two independent patient samples we were also able to determine whether there is consistency in these patients' response to CBT-E.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Recruitment continued until 99 patients had entered the study (UK, N = 50; Italy, N = 49). The demographic characteristics of the two samples are shown in Table 1. They primarily consisted of single, female patients in their mid-20s. The eating disorder was well established in most cases with the mean duration of anorexia nervosa being three years. Table 2 shows their clinical characteristics. Both samples were substantially underweight, the Italian sample weighing significantly less than the UK one (p < 0.001) reflecting the difference in the BMI entry criteria at the two sites. In most other respects the UK sample had significantly higher levels of psychopathology than the Italian one.