اثرات منابع درونی و بیرونی انگیزش در رفاه به زمان روز بستگی دارد: اثرات تعدیل انباشت کار روزانه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|30135||2015||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6320 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Vocational Behavior, Volume 88, June 2015, Pages 38–46
Using self-determination theory and research on temporal aspects of work (e.g., time of day), this study investigates dynamic effects of task-specific motivation on well-being throughout the workday. We argue that the effects of task-specific intrinsic and extrinsic motivations on well-being outcomes (psychological vitality, job satisfaction) depend on the time of day in which the task is encountered, referred to here as workday accumulation. Our results showed that time of day interacted with intrinsic sources of motivation to predict job satisfaction, such that the relation was strong and positive early in the day and weak and positive later in the day. Time of day did not moderate the relationship of intrinsic task motivation with vitality, which was consistently positive throughout the day. The effects of extrinsic reasons for task pursuit on satisfaction and vitality were moderated by time of day, with extrinsic motivation having positive effects early in the day, but negative effects later in the day.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
4. Results Table 2 displays the means, standard deviations, and within-person correlations among the study variables. As shown in Table 3, time of day was marginally negatively related to vitality and satisfaction, consistent with the idea that there is a downward trend in these variables over the course of the workday. Hypothesis 1 predicted that workday accumulation would interact with event-level intrinsic sources of motivation to predict (a) psychological vitality and (b) job satisfaction. Consistent with past research, event-level intrinsic motivation positively related to psychological vitality (γ = .16, p < .001) and job satisfaction (γ = .11, p < .001). However, Hypothesis 1a was not supported as there was no interaction between time of day and event-level intrinsic sources of motivation in predicting psychological vitality (γ = − .03, n.s.). Hypothesis 1b was supported (γ = − .13, p = .058) by a significant interaction; as shown in Fig. 1A, the positive relationship between event-level intrinsic sources of motivation and event-level job satisfaction was strong early in the day, and weakened as the day progressed. Table 2. Means, standard deviations, reliabilities, and within-person correlations of study variables. Variables Mean… SD 1 2 3 4 5 1. Intrinsic motivation 2.55 1.29 (.85) 2. Extrinsic motivation 3.25 1.24 − .13⁎⁎ (.56) 3. Time of day 370.22 151.04 .03 .04⁎ – 4. Psychological vitality 3.73 1.00 .23⁎⁎ − .02 .03⁎ (.72) 5. Job satisfaction 3.99 1.02 .16⁎⁎ − .04⁎ .02 .29⁎⁎ (.67) Note. SD = standard deviation. All variables except for time of day were assessed on a 5-point scale. Time of day was measured in minutes starting at 6:30 AM (the mean of 370.22 min corresponds to about 12:40 PM and the SD of 151.04 corresponds to about 3 h). Values along the diagonal in parentheses are average estimated Cronbach's alpha coefficients. ⁎ p < .05. ⁎⁎ p < .01. Table options Table 3. Random coefficient models predicting psychological vitality and job satisfaction. Dependent variables Psychological vitality Job satisfaction γ SE γ SE Intercept 3.81⁎⁎⁎ (.08) 4.05⁎⁎⁎ (.10) Extrinsic motivation .08⁎ (.04) .04⁎ (.02) Intrinsic motivation .14⁎⁎ (.04) .11⁎⁎⁎ (.02) Time of day − .29† (.15) − .14† (.07) Intrinsic motivation × time of day .03 (.15) − .13† (.07) Extrinsic motivation × time of day − .27⁎ (.12) − .18⁎⁎ (.06) Total pseudo-R2 5.74% 2.96% Note. Event-level n = 3904, person-level n = 98. SE = standard error. All analyses were at the within-person level of analysis. Values in parentheses are robust standard errors. Pseudo-R2 corresponds to the percentage of within-person variance accounted for by the model. † p < .10. ⁎ p < .05. ⁎⁎ p < .01. ⁎⁎⁎ p < .001. Table options Full-size image (46 K) Fig. 1. Panel A—interaction between intrinsic and time of day on job satisfaction. Panel B—interaction between extrinsic and time of day on psychological vitality. Panel C—interaction between extrinsic and time of day on job satisfaction. Figure options Hypothesis 2 proposed that workday accumulation (time of day) would interact with event-level extrinsic reasons for task pursuit, such that early in the day event-level extrinsic sources of motivation would be positively related to (a) psychological vitality and (b) job satisfaction, but late in the day the relationships would be negative. In these analyses (see Table 3), event-level extrinsic sources of motivation positively related to psychological vitality (γ = .08, p < .05) and job satisfaction (γ = .04, p < .05). Consistent with Hypothesis 2a, time of day significantly interacted with event-level extrinsic sources of motivation to predict psychological vitality (γ = − .27, p < .05). As shown in Fig. 1B, event-level extrinsic reasons for pursuing a task were positively related to psychological vitality early in the day; however, as the day progressed, the relationship became negative. Hypothesis 2b also was supported, with a significant interaction between time of day and event-level extrinsic reasons for task pursuit predicting job satisfaction (γ = − .18, p < .01). As shown in Fig. 1C, a disordinal interaction was observed with event-level extrinsic sources of motivation positively relating to event-level job satisfaction early in the day, and negatively predicting event-level job satisfaction late in the day.