پارادایم ایده های فرهنگی و اجتماعی در مدیریت پروژه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|3043||2005||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Project Management, Volume 23, Issue 8, November 2005, Pages 575–583
This paper aims to fuel the discussion on examining project management research from different perspectives. A new memetic approach to project management is presented that promotes a new way to examine the discipline of project management. Project management is claimed to be a memeplex with the language and stories of its scholars and practitioners at its core; shaping and restricting human behaviour, and creating impoverished mental models of project management. The paper suggests that a new memetic approach to project management will help lift restrictions imposed by the traditional research approach, and enrich our mental maps of project management to serve us better
Despite decades of research and experience, project management (PM) still fails to live up to the expectations of stakeholders as they continue to be disappointed by project results ,  and . Söderland  and others  and  argue that a possible cause for poor project results is that scholars and practitioners still do not really understand the nature of projects, and that too much research effort has been directed towards clarifying the reasons for project success and failure, while downplaying research on why projects exist and behave as they do. Moreover, Söderland  suggests that to highlight the weaknesses of current PM research we should be pursuing questions such as; Why do project organisations exist, why do they differ, and how do they behave? What is the function of, or value added by, the PM unit? However, these questions still presuppose that we understand what a project is, and what the management of one means. I believe we will not find answers to these questions or further our understanding of projects and their management by using our current research approach to PM  and . I suggest a new “memetic” approach is required. One that requires us to consider that most of what we call a project and what it is to manage one is an illusion; a human construct about a collection of feelings, expectations , and sensations, cleverly conjured up, fashioned, and conveniently labelled by the human brain. Moreover, it requires us to consider that our reasons for using projects and PM are not consciously driven to maximise profit. Scholars and practitioners will be required to consider PM as naturally occurring, self-serving, evolving and designing organisations for its own purpose. Abandoning our current PM knowledge will not be required; however a memetic approach will compel us to examine it, redirecting our attention to previously hidden aspects of PM enquiry. Rather than posing questions such as “why do project organisations exist,” we can ask, “what are we able to see, think, or talk about if we conceive PM in a memetic way?” Throughout this paper I refer to a traditional approach to PM research. Traditional meaning the current approach, with underlying mental models which have been extended with many variations on a theme to inform management theory . These traditional models regard organisations as human constructs. An underlying assumption of a traditional approach to PM research assumes that an organisation is an entity in its own right, with structures and systems that can be changed for the purpose of organisational improvement. In this paper I will put forward an argument for a change from the traditional to a memetic approach to PM research. Such an approach will make an impact on many aspects of PM, such as; how it evolves, how it is studied and practiced, the role of the project manager, the project team and the profession. Moreover, it will make an impact on our view of the PM body of knowledge (BoK) and the role of project organisations. Table 1 summarises aspects of PM that are discussed in detail in this paper, highlighting the traditional vs. memetic approach to PM, and emphasising the impact of a new memetic paradigm.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This paper has called on scholars and practising professionals of the discipline of PM to be aware of the mental models they use when conducting research or practising PM. I have put forward the case that the current traditional approach to PM research is distorting the reality of projects, and shifting our focus away from the important aspects of projects, their management, and how PM influences us individually and collectively. I suggest that a memetic paradigm of PM be considered when indulging in this field of enquiry, and that a new memetic approach is initiated with the purpose of studying, describing, and explaining the phenomena of the PM memeplex and its impact on society. My purpose for drawing attention to the PM memeplex is not simply to justify it, but to alert us to it. Not that we will be able to overcome it, as I do not believe we are able to step out of the evolutionary process and take it over. Rather that we should be aware of the illusions the PM memes create, try to identify those that more closely describe reality, and observe or create environments where memes other than those in the PM memeplex can evolve.