از عمق به سطح: هنر درمانی به عنوان یک عمل گفتمانی در عصر پست مدرن
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|30446||1995||5 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : The Arts in Psychotherapy, Volume 22, Issue 3, 1995, Pages 235–239
Pergamon The Arts in Psychotherapy, Vol. 22, No. 3, pp. 235-239. 1995 Copyright 0 1995 Elsevier Science Ltd Printed in the USA. All rights reserved 0197-4556/95 $9.50 + Ml 0197-4556(95)00027-5 FROM THE DEPTHS TO THE SURFACE: ART THERAPY AS A DISCURSIVE PRACTICE IN THE POST-MODERN ERA PETER BYRNE, M.Phil.* How does art therapy fit into the post-modem world that is our present cultural habitat? The evolu- tion of our discipline between the 1940s and 196Os, the height of the Modernist movement in art, pro- foundly influences both our theory and our practice. The particular branches of Modernism taken up by art therapy were, of course: (a) Abstract Expressionism, premised on a supposed connection between “univer- sal” inner feelings and impulses and the artist’s ges- tures on the canvas; (b) Primitivism, child art, insane art, graffiti, tapped into the so-called genuine roots of creativity; and (c) Surrealism, where links were pos- ited between automatism, the unconscious, dreams and art. These three branches gave permission for artists to dispense with the formal language of con- ventional figure drawing, composition and perspec- tive so that we could honestly say to our clients it doesn’t matter if you can’t draw, because there was a world of art out there that endorsed this statement. However, as these branches of Modernism evolved toward Art-Povera, Assemblage and Pop-Art with in- creasing emphasis on the image as signifier itself, rather than on what was supposed to be signified by the image, in other words toward Post-Modernism, art therapy had to ask new questions of the art world. How can we use Warhol, Koohns, Clementi, Fischl, Sherman, for instance? What do Beavis and Butthead, the Benneton billboards, tell us about the social norms against which pathologies stand forward as figures against a ground? What does the Post-Modem prop- osition-that there are neither universal inner truths nor a fixed external world that art can either express or represent--entail for art therapy? Modernism is characterized by its sense of social and personal history, its belief in progress, as well as by its conception of the individual, its dichotomizing reason and unreason, so that in our field the Modem- ist art therapist’s task is to turn unreason into reason. The aim may be, for example, to overcome too ag- gressive a superego and to modify it, give it back as a less dangerous, more useful force or to coax into awareness the unconscious repression that has dis- guised itself as a symptom, to at last identify the true pathological culprit. The strategy is to first uncen- sor, to interpret, to find and face the cause of the symptom. Generally speaking (but with a few exceptions), art therapists have espoused positivist psychological out- looks, bent on curing the symptom via insight or ad- aptation. Therapeutic strategies have included inter- preting symptoms according to theories rooted in “going back to origins.” These origins could be ei- ther the Oedipus complex or early infantile traumas or assaults, abuse, deaths. Alternatively, there have been strategies, rooted in a transcendent teleological mode, of assisting archetypal processes to unfold. Fi- nally, there have been strategies for “beefing up” the (narcissistic) self, for enabling the person to assert him or herself in the here and now-strategies for self-expression, individuation, self-realization. Now this requires our assumption of a concept of selfhood including personal, social and historical levels of *Peter Byrne is Head of the School of Art Therapy, Edinburgh University Settlement, Edinburgh, Scotland. 235