پروژه فیلم مستند با دانشجویان سال اول هنر درمانی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|30493||2006||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : The Arts in Psychotherapy, Volume 33, Issue 4, 2006, Pages 281–287
New user-friendly programs for video editing, smaller and less expensive digital cameras, and the mobility of laptop computers have made digital video as an art therapy medium an accessible and realistic media choice for art therapy practice. Masters level art therapy students evolve dramatically over their first year and this evolution can be documented and used for supervision through this digital media. This paper discusses a documentary film project that was initiated to meet the particular needs of first-year art therapy students by having them document their year through digital pictures, digital film, traditional art making and written journaling. Ten first-year art therapy students worked collectively to capture what they defined as the “first-year experience.” Students took on the roles of video camera people, actors, still photographers, art producers, editors, and directors. They stated that the process of first-year art therapy education was challenging both emotionally and mentally and that this video project helped them to reflect on their experience, document their transitions, and become aware of the immediacy of the moment.
In art therapy, the use of technology as a counseling intervention has been gradually increasing. Technology as an art medium first emerged with photography as a therapeutic intervention (Weiser, 1988). Photography has been identified as a rich modality for assessment, intervention, and self-expression in art therapy practice. In the 1980s and 1990s, magazine collage and photocopy manipulation of imagery became accepted in practice (Landgarten, 1983 and Landgarten, 1993). Another electronic medium used in art therapy prior to computers was video (McNiff & Cook, 1975). Artists, therapists, and clients may use a video or film's moving images for communication. The combination of this moving image with dialogue, music, and effects deepens and extends the meaning, mood, and message intended with the communication. People's lives are often shaped by the moving image. With the abundance of television, film, and video on the Internet, people are exposed to it on a daily basis. The moving image is perhaps the single most important form of communication among those that allow people to know about the world and about other people, and that allow people to take part in and share cultures (Hooper, 2002). Since the advent of digital technology and computers, the possibilities for creating and editing digital media in art therapy sessions have increased substantially. Weinberg (1985) wrote about the uses of computers for creating art with clients with physical limitations. In the study, Weinberg found using the computer as an art-making tool stimulated curiosity and motivation, and increased access to the art-making process, which would otherwise be limited due to the disabilities of her clients. Canter (1989) argued that computers work well with children and adolescents due to their prior knowledge of and comfort level with this medium. She found that creating art with computers increased concentration and improved self-esteem of this population. More recently, Parker-Bell (1999) and McLeod (1999) have written about using specific software programs as interactive and creative tools in art therapy practice with children and adults. New user-friendly programs for video editing, smaller and less expensive digital cameras, and the mobility of laptop computers have made digital video as an art therapy medium an accessible and realistic media choice for art therapy practice. Orr (2005) explored ideas surrounding the inherent qualities of digital media in art therapy practice. The study showed that technology media have both benefits and drawbacks and are good choices with particular clients, but not with others. As with other media in the art therapists’ toolbox, when an art therapist chooses to use technology, he or she must take into account its inherent qualities and its potential effect on the therapeutic process, as well as its relationship with the client. As Seiden (2001) indicated, when working with clients it is important to consider which materials fit the therapeutic goals for that individual, because the right choice of material may greatly enhance the therapeutic process, whereas the wrong material might hinder it. This article extends the ideas in the Orr (2005) article by specifically exploring the nature and use of digital video documentary production as an art therapy intervention and reflection tool for first-year art therapy students. In order to understand the particular qualities associated with digital video production, a look at what research can already show us is helpful. Research being done on the use of digital video as an art-making medium has occurred in education, phototherapy in art therapy, and fine arts fields. In the education system, digital video has been used successfully as an art-making medium, a tool for analysis and research, and a tool to provide behavior feedback for students and teachers. Educators have found that making and editing digital video digital video (DV) films encourages students to think about their subject matter on a deeper level (Swain et al., 2003). Educators have also found that using DV increases motivation and enjoyment; can accommodate students with different learning styles and levels of ability (Burn et al., 2001); encourages self-expression and creativity; can help develop a range of social learning skills, including communication, negotiation, decision-making, and problem-solving; allows students to explore different roles and identities (Reid et al., 2002); and gives students a sense of achievement and improved self-esteem (Ryan, 2002). In phototherapy, digital video has been used as “video-in-therapy” and “video-as-therapy” (Weiser, 2001). Video-in-therapy is the use of personal and public film within the framework of therapeutic practice to initiate discussion and review issues (Calisch, 2001). Video-as-therapy is the client creating, editing and manipulating the video for themselves as a path for personal change (Weiser, 2001). Often art therapists are using a combination of techniques and ideas from phototherapy within their art therapy practice. Campbell and Linn (2001) developed a Video Movie Project in which pediatric patients in a large public city hospital were encouraged to create their own videos on topics of their choice. The purpose of this project was to facilitate expression and give the children a sense of control in the hospital environment. The children took the roles of actor, director, editor, and audience during the course of the filmmaking. The videos not only allowed the children an opportunity for expression and control, but also facilitated communication with the hospital staff about each child's subjective understanding of his or her illness and treatment process. This allowed the staff to provide better care for the more difficult children since they were not seen just as challenging patients, but as individuals with complexity and depth. Campbell and Linn used a combination of play therapy, phototherapy, and art therapy as a way to access children's sense of fantasy, playfulness, creativity, feelings, and concerns. O’Rourke (2001) used video therapy with child war survivors to explore traumatic memories. She states that many trauma survivors describe traumatic memories as “moving pictures.” The moving pictures become nightmares and intrusive thoughts. O’Rourke used video to provide the children with the capability to create their own moving images in order to regain the sense of control that is lost when they are overcome by these traumatic memories. The camera allows the child to frame, manipulate, and miniaturize images, and thus alters the child's perception of the images. O’Rourke felt that survivors gain a sense of mastery and safety when engaged in the video process, a sense of empowerment evolves with the ability to maintain control over moving self-images. This process also allows each child to feel that they and their concerns are actually seen. More recently, art therapists have been presenting their work with digital video at American Art Therapy Association annual conferences. Presentations have ranged from the use of digital video as documentation in mural making projects (Malcom, 2004), to work with autistic children (Maxion, 2002), to general use in art therapy practice (Mosinski, 2005), to the production of films about underrepresented populations’ experiences (Hoshino, 2003). In the fine arts, artists are using digital video to tell personal stories. They have used this medium to renegotiate the everyday, and to engage layers of meaning, silence, image, and sound in ways that are specific to this medium (Kuppers, 2001). Kuppers found that video allowed her students with disabilities to comment on the complexity of mental health distress as negative, socially stigmatized, and disorienting, while also being a source of richness. Vitiello (2001) worked with students on creating video diaries. She found that the class often discussed the power and responsibility involved in the creation of film. Questions of how to represent themselves and other people became a constant struggle for this group. Students quickly realized that when confronting their own issues in a public forum, they had to be very clear in their message, had to determine which parts of themselves they wished to represent, and had to look carefully at the complex and contradictory issues in their lives. The audience serves to hold the maker accountable for his or her words and actions. The students, however, could control what they told, how much they told, and how closely they allowed the audience to get to them with humor, effects, and point of view in the video. The work being done in education, art therapy, phototherapy, and fine arts with digital video shows that this medium has considerable breadth in its application and can be appealing to many different populations. This work demonstrates digital video's ability to facilitate communication of complex issues and to increase comprehension of the subjective experience.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Through the analysis of the experience of creating a digital video and the themes and narrative of the video, it was apparent that the unique quality of video for capturing a moment in time using the combination of image, sound, and movement allowed students a full expression of their experience. It is interesting that even though some of the images were moved out of the natural time sequence during the editing process, the narrative still followed a parallel path to their experience. Video media allowed students to quickly get an image down and then to step back and reflect upon what that image or series of images meant, how significant they were, and then decide if they wanted to keep or delete them. Video also allowed the introduction of music, transitions, and special effects in order to enhance of steer the mood of the piece. The multiple-dimensions of this medium helped students to capture a well-developed picture of their experience, to show a progression over time, and to make changes in mood across the piece. Issues that arose during the filming promoted and supported discussions in supervision. Discussions on ethics, consent forms, permission, liability, point of view, trust, interpretation, and media choice were full and rich. These topics were discussed in terms of the film project, students’ sites, clients, and personal feelings, giving students multiple points of view from which to discuss each topic. Caution areas in doing a similar project as part of practicum arise mostly in the management of the project. The story-building process, filming, and planning are very natural to the therapeutic process, but the editing of the film, if not handled well, could sidetrack supervision. First, it is important to start with students who are interested in learning or are already comfortable with digital media. Working with a group on this type of project works well because members are able to take on roles that are most comfortable for them, while at the same time trying roles that aren’t so comfortable. The group format also allows those who are more technologically savvy to do more of the editing, and thus decrease the time needed for learning the program. Those who are not familiar with the program can learn it through watching the editing process and helping make editing decisions. Later, they can be encouraged to work with the program. With eight to ten persons, a similar project can be done by splitting the group into two groups of four. One-half of the group can focus on capturing images while the other can work on editing, and then they can switch places during the next session. If managed well, the process of creating a digital video is exciting and rewarding for the students. The students in this project felt that it was a great experience and helped them understand their own development as art therapists. There is a significant difference between simply telling a student that they have progressed over the semester as an art therapist and the student actually watching that progression on screen.