هنر درمانی برای یک نوجوان مبتلا به سندرم اسپرگر
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|30506||2008||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : The Arts in Psychotherapy, Volume 35, Issue 4, 2008, Pages 262–270
Asperger's syndrome is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by impairments in social interaction, restricted, repetitive and stereotyped patterns of behavior, interests, and activities. Adolescents with Asperger's syndrome have developed a compromised self-regulatory system, which leads to difficulty in many areas of functioning. Some of these areas include social, behavioral, emotional, and an increase in anxiety. Art therapy is an important activity based intervention that allows those with Asperger's syndrome to receive and learn information in a non-conventional, nonverbal, comprehensive, and expressive language. Over a 7-month period of creating art, Emma became increasingly more communicative and comfortable in areas of functioning, especially social interactions. The incorporation of visual creativity allowed her to express herself and be heard on a new level of communication. Through her artwork she was able to move from having difficulty in functioning to learning, growing, challenging herself, and making post-secondary education plans.
This article is a case example of an adolescent with Asperger's syndrome. Therapeutic engagement in the art making process enabled Emma, an 18-year-old female, to address her difficulties with social interaction and integration appropriate for her developmental age. It became apparent that the initial diagnosis of social phobia was not consistent with Emma's presenting symptoms. A psychological evaluation was performed, and it was determined that the diagnosis that appropriately addressed Emma's symptomology was Asperger's syndrome. Since difficulties negotiating the environment usually become apparent with Asperger's syndrome later than other pervasive developmental disorders (PDD), many times it is not until a child reaches adolescence that it is identified. The first sign of difficulty may show up within the secondary school setting, when peer interaction becomes integral to normal development (Ramsay et al., 2005). As a result of misdiagnosis, the adolescent does not receive the proper support, causing further delays in addressing the issues impeding normal development and academic achievement. This case example of Emma presents an illustration of an adolescent who was initially misdiagnosed. After art therapy, Emma is now progressing more appropriately within school and social settings.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Over the course of the 7 months that Emma was engaged in art therapy, she became increasingly more communicative. When she first arrived she was experiencing extreme anxiety, had difficulty engaging socially and had no plans for the future. Through the use of visual expression and focused art therapy activities, she gained insights into her diagnosis of Asperger's syndrome. This resulted in her feeling more comfortable in communicating. She was further able to discuss and make plans for the future, developing and incorporating new coping strategies and more useful social skills. She also became increasingly involved with her peers at school, and discussed and sought out post-secondary information, applications, and with completion resulted in an acceptance. There were multiple advantages of art therapy for Emma. She benefited greatly from the multi-sensory immersion from her narrower world into the larger broader world that surrounds her. Adolescents similar to Emma, diagnosed with Asperger's syndrome, have difficulty with interpersonal interaction. The art therapy process opened new avenues and channels of communication for her to utilize, which were previously not available and known to her. Through the use of art therapy, nonverbal communication is created into a tangible form, enhancing the therapeutic process to address the presenting problem. Through the use of artwork and metaphor, Emma was able to gain insight into her personal struggle. Once these concerns were addressed she incorporated them into her identity, changing her perceptions and behaviors. Her acceptance into a post-secondary educational experience and the resulting excitement and comfort with her social milieu was the culmination of the hard work Emma invested in her therapeutic process. The only limitation was Emma's need to leave for college and disengage from the therapeutic relationship and its support system. There was no availability to guide Emma while she transitioned into her new academic and social environment. The implications from Emma's experience are threefold. Diagnosis of Asperger's syndrome can only be made from a full and accurate psychological evaluation and not from observed symptoms alone, as is often the case with anxiety and social phobias for adolescents. Art therapy creates a full sensory immersion and interaction of verbal, visual, and tactile modalities. This allows a client, like Emma, to have a fuller and more expressive ability to communicate with herself and the people and world they live in. A safe and positive environment with the exploration and expression of art relaxes and encourages the Asperger's patient to develop greater self-concept, simultaneously strengthening greater self esteem and regard for others.