سیستم های کامپیوتری برای ارزیابی هنر درمانی عناصر در ساختار ماندالا
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||تعداد صفحات مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی|
|30508||2009||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید|
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Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : The Arts in Psychotherapy, Volume 36, Issue 1, February 2009, Pages 19–28
This paper delineates the development of a computer system designed to automatically rate elements of art assessment in structured mandala, provide the results in the form of quantitative data, and thus facilitate the decision making process of human experts. Based on the analysis of the color-related basic elements by computerized digital image processing, the system deduces information on the color-related applied elements from an appropriately constructed knowledge base. Also, the system rates the degree of concentration involved in the activity of structured mandala coloring: the degree of concentration is suggested as a new element which is believed to determine the effectiveness of structured mandala as an art therapy tool. In this study, we devise an algorithm to objectively rate the completeness and accuracy of the coloring, and formulate a regression model whose dependent variable is the degree of concentration rated by human experts and whose independent variables are the color-related elements, completeness, and accuracy. Some important variables are selected by stepwise regression, and their relative effects on the degree of concentration are determined by standardized regression. The proposed system is validated by showing the consistency between the results obtained by human experts and those obtained by the system through examples.
Mandala is a Hindu word derived from Sanskrit meaning circle or center. Jung believed mandala to be an archetype of the “Self,” which he defined as an organizing center where psychic growth comes from. This inner center was a guiding factor different from the conscious personality that enabled a person to become a more complete human being (Jung, 1963 and Slegelis, 1987). The mandala serves a conservative purpose – namely, to restore a previously existing order. But it also serves the creative purpose of giving expression and form to something that does not yet exist – something new and unique (Jung, 1964). Bush (1988) reported that through mandalas, imagery reflecting the unconscious dynamics of a client could be accessed at several levels of consciousness. Fincher (1991) stated: We can attend to the language of the unconscious and we can honor and cultivate our relationship with the Self by creating mandalas. Mandalas contain and organize archetypal energies from the unconscious in a form that can be assimilated by consciousness. (pp. 23–24) The concept of mandala’s centering contributed to the development of the Family-Centered Circle Drawings by Burns (1990). The mandala has been widely accepted as an effective art therapy tool for the diagnosis and treatment of emotional or psychological status, symptoms, and disorders. There have been many studies showing that the mandala can be utilized as an efficient art therapy tool, which can provide an understanding of the psychological and emotional status of a patient and an added source of information and guidance in therapy. Slegelis (1987) stated that art psychotherapists today often employ the mandala as a basic tool for self-awareness, conflict resolution, and as a basis for various other art psychotherapeutic techniques in a variety of situations. DiLeo and Kellogg (1977) demonstrated a case where the art therapist was able to derive remarkably accurate psychological information even from relatively meager graphic responses. For example, mandala drawing was useful for the purpose of initial diagnosis, and as a means of recording the pattern of treatment (DiLeo & Kellogg, 1977), as a valuable source of diagnostic information and a better understanding of a mentally handicapped person’s dynamics (Frame, 1982), and also for assessing the compatibility of a couple in a committed relationship (Frame, 2006). There have also been many studies showing that the mandala is an effective tool for therapeutic purposes. Bonny and Kellogg (1977) reported a case where mandala therapy was effective for a patient complaining of anxiety, guilty feelings, and various socially crippling phobias who felt inadequate, unable to make decisions, experienced sudden shifts of mood, nightmares, and felt frigid. They hoped that the mandala would be used more and more frequently as a concomitant therapy to other modes of treatment. For children with attention-deficit disorder (ADD) or attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), mandala exercises had the effect of increasing attentional abilities and decreasing impulsive behaviors over time, allowing for better decision making, completion of tasks, general growth in developmental levels, and interest in personal aesthetics (Smitheman-Brown & Church, 1996). The use of the mandala as an art therapy tool is classified into two types: drawing free figures in a circle (unstructured mandala), or coloring a given pattern in a circle (structured mandala). The mandalas mentioned above refer to unstructured mandala. Given that these two techniques involve exercises concentrated within a circle, similar effects may be expected from both of them. Curry and Kasser (2005) reported that coloring structured mandalas reduced the anxiety of undergraduate students. We selected structured mandala as an art therapy tool in this paper. The main reason for this is that structured mandala is much simpler than unstructured mandala from the viewpoint of developing a computer system. Also, the structured mandala coloring group experienced a greater reduction in anxiety than the unstructured mandala drawing group (Curry & Kasser, 2005). Moreover, the structured mandala is an art therapy tool widely used for all age groups including children, adolescents and elderly persons. Especially, Couch (1997) stated that the mandala drawing is an appropriate art therapy tool for people with notably diminished functions. In this study, elderly persons with suspected dementia were selected as subjects.