سه سطح مفهومی از ساختار کار مدیریت پروژه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|3059||2006||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7167 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Project Management, Volume 24, Issue 5, July 2006, Pages 412–421
The widespread use of project management standards for professional competence assessment and development is based on a rationalistic approach, whereby competence is seen as constituted by a pre-defined set of attributes in the form of knowledge topics. Yet little is known about whether and how these attributes are used by project managers in the workplace. In this paper we report an empirical exploration of project managers’ ways of conceiving and accomplishing their work. We follow Sandberg’s [Sandberg J. Human competence at work: an interpretative approach. Göteborg (Sweden): Bas; 1994; Sandberg J. Understanding human competence at work: an interpretative approach. Acad Manage J 2000;43(1):9–25.] phenomenographic study of automobile engine designers that found that the basic meaning structure of people’s conceptions of their work constitutes their competence at work. From our interviews with 30 project managers in UK construction firms, we identify three different basic conceptions of project management work. Each conception has a different main focus and a different set of key attributes that appeared to project managers when experiencing and accomplishing their work, reflecting a hierarchical arrangement of three distinctly different forms of project management competence. The findings offer an opportunity for a new approach to professional competence assessment and development that complements existing standards-based approaches.
The rapid rise of project management as a professional discipline has given rise to a number of well-established standards that define the scope of the discipline and describe its tools, techniques and concepts. These standards are now widely used for professional competence assessment, development and certification. They are based on the assumption that individuals who are able to demonstrate their understanding of the principles of project management embodied in the standards are deemed to be professionally competent as project managers. This follows a so-called rationalistic approach, whereby management competence is pre-defined as a specific set of knowledge areas independent of context and individual. Yet, little is known about whether and how these attributes are used by project managers in accomplishing their work. In the first part of this paper we review the two traditional approaches to researching and defining project management competence. We argue that the resulting project management standards do not actually capture project managers’ competence in the workplace. We find support for this position in empirical studies that have found no significant relationship between effective workplace performance and project management standards . We suggest an alternative, interpretive approach developed by Sandberg  and  based on the principles of phenomenography, in order to explore practicing project managers’ ways of conceiving and experiencing their work and understand their competence at work. We describe the methods and results of our study of 30 project managers in the UK construction firms, and conclude with a discussion of the implications of our findings for practice and research.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Existing studies of project management competence based on standards accord with the so-called rationalistic approach to competence and describe project management competence as a specific set of attributes independent of the context of project management work and independent of individual project managers. Following Sandberg’s  and  phenomenographic approach to understanding competence, this research takes the project management work and worker (i.e., project managers) as one entity and demonstrates how practicing project managers’ ways of experiencing their work, namely, their conceptions of their work, constitute their competence at work. The research findings suggest that whether and how project managers use the attributes described in project management standards in accomplishing their work are preceded by and based upon their conceptions of that work. Specifically, with different conceptions, project managers attach different meanings to attributes and organise the attributes into a distinctive competence in performing their work. Further, the variations in conceptions form a cumulative hierarchy of project management competence. Thus, the research findings not only illuminate what constitutes project managers’ competence in accomplishing work, but also offer an opportunity for a new approach to project management competence assessment and development. The prevalent use of standards for assessing and developing project management competence takes pre-defined areas of knowledge as the point of departure. Accordingly, in order to develop project management competence, efforts are put into transferring important attributes to those who do not possess them. This research moves the point of departure from knowledge areas to project managers’ conceptions of their work. We do not claim that the attributes described in project management standards are not necessary for competent project management work performance. Rather, the shift of emphasis enabled by the phenomenographic approach makes it possible to better describe whether attributes are used in accomplishing work, and more importantly, how attributes are formed, developed, and organised into distinctive structures of competence in project management work performance. Hence, the assessment of project management competence should not only involve examining the possession of knowledge, but should also consider the fundamentally different ways in which people experience project management work, namely, their conceptions of their work. The most basic form of developing project management competence is then to change people’s conceptions of their work. This has implications for project management professional organisations to update their competence assessment and development programme. This may also have implications for designing and conducting effective training courses on project management.