شکاف بین فردی: مداخلات مبتنی بر حضور ذهن-در پیشگیری از طرد شدگی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|30983||2015||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7556 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Consciousness and Cognition, Volume 31, January 2015, Pages 24–34
Ostracism is a ubiquitous phenomenon, occurring across a broad range of social contexts and detrimentally impacting personal outcomes. Through enhanced present-moment attention and awareness, mindfulness-based interventions may help prevent this harmful behavior. The current research examined the role of state mindfulness in reducing the propensity to commit ostracism. This relationship was investigated in two studies: a field-based quasi-experiment (Study 1, n = 51) and a laboratory-based experiment (Study 2, n = 100). Both studies supported the utility of brief mindfulness-based interventions in reducing the propensity to ostracize others. The current studies support the relevance of mindfulness in addressing the substantial problem of ostracism. Among other benefits, fostering mindfulness in a variety of contexts may help reduce personal and social costs associated with this type of incivility. This research represents the first known attempt to utilize a personal resource (mindfulness) to decrease the degree to which individuals ostracize others.
For many, interacting with teammates, coworkers, and other group members is a rewarding experience that fulfills many human needs, enabling us to obtain optimal happiness, well-being, and functioning. Unfortunately for some, these interpersonal experiences may not be a satisfying experience, and may instead be a truly unpleasant and stressful ordeal. Ostracism, which involves “ignoring and excluding individuals or groups by individuals or groups” (Williams, 2007: p. 427), is a subtle, yet insidious form of incivility that can ruin these interactions. Research has demonstrated the damaging effects of prolonged exposure to social exclusion, including decreased self-regulation, heightened aggression, and suppressed immune and cardiovascular functioning (Baumeister et al., 2005 and Dickerson, 2011). Anecdotal evidence also suggests that ostracism is a substantial contributor to violence among students at school (Leary, Kowalski, Smith, & Phillips, 2003). Research indicates that these detrimental consequences stem in a large part from a set of core needs that are left unfulfilled as a result of social ostracism: belonging, self-esteem, control, and meaningful existence (Williams, 1997 and Williams, 2001). Over time, long-term targets of ostracism may suffer from a variety of psychological symptoms, such as feelings of resignation, hopelessness, and depression. Ostracism is a ubiquitous phenomenon, frequently occurring in a variety of social contexts (Gruter and Masters, 1986, Robinson et al., 2013 and Williams, 1997). As an example, one study of 262 full-time employees revealed that, in the past five years, 66% had been deliberately shunned by co-workers or supervisors (Fox & Stallworth, 2005). Interestingly, ostracism is often unintentional (the instigator is not aware that he or she is ignoring or excluding another individual). Unfortunately, this lack of awareness or intent does not preclude the social pain felt by the target (Williams, 2007). Recent findings suggest that interventions can aid in the recovery of distress for targets of ostracism (Molet, Macquet, Lefebvre, & Williams, 2013); however, little research has explored mechanisms that may mitigate the incidence or degree to which this exclusion occurs. Accordingly, the current research taps into the personal resource of state mindfulness and its potential effect on individuals’ tendency to exclude others.