انضباط کودکان: ویژگی های مرتبط با استفاده از تنبیه بدنی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|31024||2000||14 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8198 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Child Abuse & Neglect, Volume 24, Issue 12, December 2000, Pages 1529–1542
Objective: To evaluate the Social Situational Model of Family Violence through an examination of characteristics associated with the use of ordinary and severe corporal punishment as measured by the Parents-Child Conflict Tactics Scales. Method: Logistic Regression used to examine the validity of the model using data from a national sample conducted by the Gallup Organizations. Results: Those with fewer resources (lower income, lower educational attainment) were more likely to be use severe corporal punishment. In addition, those who had been more likely to be socialized into the use of violence were also more likely to use severe corporal punishment. Conclusions: The social situational model of family violence was supported suggesting that increased efforts be made to give these parents the resources they need to implement alternative discipline strategies.
THE USE OF corporal punishment to curtail a child’s bad behavior is widely accepted by Americans and according to Straus (1994), most believe that at least in moderation, the use of corporal punishment has few, if any, harmful effects. Consequently, most American parents use corporal punishment as an integral component of child rearing. In fact, Straus (1994) found that more than 90% of American parents hit their young children and nearly half of all adolescents are hit by their parents. Moreover, the use of physical punishment by parents is common with Holden, Coleman, and Schmidt (1995) reporting that the college-educated respondents in their sample spanked their children an average of 2.5 times per week. At the same time, many parents incorporate the use of non-violent forms of discipline such as time-out and the taking away of privileges as well. The purpose of this paper is to apply structural strain theory to explaining the use of legally correct and socially approved corporal punishment. The use of corporal punishment as a discipline technique by parents and other adults in the United States has been legally and socially sanctioned for quite some time. In fact, legislation, such as the Adoption and Safe Families Act of 1997, has been introduced in the federal government as well as in many states that protects parental rights to use force in child rearing. The roots for the use of force as a discipline technique are found throughout our religious and legal institutions as well as ingrained in the socio-cultural foundations of American society (Greven, 1991). Most parents agree that the use of spanking as a discipline technique is necessary, most authors of books on child rearing support the use of corporal punishment as well (Straus, 1994). In fact, Straus (1994) found that of 10 widely used textbooks on child development, only one argued against the use of corporal punishment. Moreover, Carson (1986) examined 31 of the most popular child rearing advice books, finding that while 35% advised against the use of corporal punishment and 35% ignored the subject altogether, 30% encouraged the use of corporal punishment. However, many of the latter provided disclaimers indicating that corporal punishment was permissible under certain circumstances (Carson, 1986). Although there is a great deal of social support for the use of spanking as a discipline technique, a growing body of literature indicates that the use of such, even in moderation, may have deleterious effects upon children (cf. DuRant et al 1995, Kandel 1991, McCord 1988, Muller et al 1995, Strassberg et al 1994, Straus 1994 and Straus and Gimpel 1992).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The results of the analysis lend support to the theory that parents who experience more financial stress; parenting stress, such as parenting a younger child; and who have fewer resources, such as education, to fall back upon are more likely to use ordinary and severe corporal punishment in their child-rearing practices. Moreover, the project lends further support to the arguments of Coser (1967) that the presence of violence in these environments then becomes socialized as part of the culture itself. For example, the ideas that African Americans are more likely to incorporate corporal punishment into their parenting practices in order to prepare their children for the harsh realities of society, including violence and chronic poverty Baumrind 1991, Belsky 1991 and Lassiter 1987, and/or that the use of corporal punishment within the African American family is an example of the long-term effects of slavery upon the African American community Alvy 1987, Kohn 1977 and Peters 1976 are supported. It is evident that the relationships between sociodemographic characteristics and the use of corporal punishment are indeed complex. Aside from supporting increased efforts to ensure a minimal, but realistic, income to low-income families in this country, it is apparent that efforts need to be made to educate parents about the possible negative outcomes associated with the use of corporal punishment. In addition, it is also apparent that efforts to educate parents about alternatives to corporal punishment are sorely needed as well. It is further evident that it is particularly important to focus such educational efforts to parents of young children, and particularly mothers because they are likely to spend greater amounts of time with their children. In addition, it seems that efforts should also be targeted toward parents of male children, parents with less than a high school education, and parents whose incomes fall into the poverty range. Based upon the results of this research that support the social situation model for explaining family violence, portions of the population who either experience more stress or are more likely to experience more violence within their social environment should be targeted for educational campaigns to teach parents about the possible effects of corporal punishment on children as well as alternative discipline techniques. Therefore, African American parents and parents who reside in the southern region of the United States should be given special attention. Because of the unique roles that physicians and clergy play in providing advice to parents on child rearing, their cooperation in this educational campaign is essential. Moreover, social workers and community service providers who work with low-income families should also be aware of the necessity for educating mothers about alternative to corporal punishment. At the same time, media campaigns may prove to be helpful in disseminating information about discipline techniques. Furthermore, it is important that information about disciplinary techniques be included in the many educational programs that are available to adolescents at the secondary educational level (ie health classes) and the college level (ie family and child development courses) and to expectant parents (such as child-birth classes). Likewise, programs that provide additional support networks and parenting advice to new parents, adolescent parents, and low-income parents are especially needed.