جنسیت، قومیت، عزت نفس و اختلال تغذیه ای در میان ورزشکاران دانشجو
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|31289||2004||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||3522 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Eating Behaviors, Volume 5, Issue 2, May 2004, Pages 147–156
Objective This study was undertaken to compare ethnic and gender differences regarding self-esteem and various disordered eating attitudes and behaviors among elite college athletes. Method A total of 1445 student athletes from 11 Division I schools were surveyed using a 133-item questionnaire. Results White female athletes reported significantly lower self-esteem than Black female, Black male and White male athletes. Black female athletes' self-esteem was equal to both Black and White male athletes. White female athletes reported significantly higher drive for thinness, body dissatisfaction, and more disturbed eating behaviors than Black female and both groups of male athletes. Discussion The current study demonstrates that White female athletes appear to be most at risk for having difficulty with eating disorders. Their reporting of significantly lower self-esteem indicates that this may be a risk factor that is more characteristic of this ethnic group. Questions are raised about what factors exist in the Black female culture that protect them from low self-esteem and disordered eating attitudes and behaviors.
Low self-esteem is a primary risk factor for developing an eating disorder and is highly correlated with body dissatisfaction, another primary risk factor for eating disorders Garner, 1991, Johnson & Maddi, 1986 and Thompson, 1996. Women, overall, report lower self-esteem and higher body dissatisfaction than men, suggesting a gender bias Garner, 1991 and Thompson, 1996. One notable exception to these overall findings is among Black women. Numerous studies have demonstrated that Black women report higher self-esteem and lower drive for thinness and body dissatisfaction than White women. These data suggest that there may be factors within certain ethnic groups, particularly African Americans, that protect against eating disorders Abrams et al., 1993, Chandler et al., 1994, Crago et al., 1996, Glass et al., 1993, Rucker & Cash, 1993, Story et al., 1995, Striegel-Moore & Smolak, 1996, Striegel-Moore & Smolak, 2000 and Wilfley et al., 1996. As part of the search for protective factors against eating disorders, the question has been raised whether success in athletics for women would be a protective factor against body dissatisfaction, drive for thinness, and low self-esteem Johnson et al., 1999 and Powers & Johnson, 1996. The current study was undertaken on a large sample of Division I National Collegiate Athletic Association (NCAA) athletes to compare gender and ethnic differences regarding self-esteem and various eating disorder attitudes and behaviors. Findings presented are a follow-up of Engel et al. (2003) demonstrating a number of disordered eating predictors in elite collegiate athletes and a more comprehensive investigation of the variables of gender and ethnicity.