دانلود مقاله ISI انگلیسی شماره 31331
عنوان فارسی مقاله

آیا نشخوار فکری و بازتاب ها، انواع توجه متمرکز بر خود بشمار می روند؟

کد مقاله سال انتشار مقاله انگلیسی ترجمه فارسی تعداد کلمات
31331 2005 11 صفحه PDF سفارش دهید محاسبه نشده
خرید مقاله
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عنوان انگلیسی
Are rumination and reflection types of self-focused attention?
منبع

Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)

Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 38, Issue 4, March 2005, Pages 871–881

کلمات کلیدی
نشخوار فکری - انعکاس - خود آگاهی - خود تمرکز - خود ارزیابی - توجه - ارزیابی شخصیت - اعتبار ساختاری -
پیش نمایش مقاله
پیش نمایش مقاله آیا نشخوار فکری و بازتاب ها، انواع توجه متمرکز بر خود بشمار می روند؟

چکیده انگلیسی

The study of self-focused attention explores both state self-focus (objective self-awareness) and individual-differences in trait self-focus (self-consciousness). Trapnell and Campbell (1999) proposed a motivational model of individual-differences in self-focused attention, based on rumination and reflection as types of self-focus. Two studies, with Internet-based (Study 1, n = 101) and college student samples (Study 2, n = 115), assessed the construct validity of rumination and reflection. Self-focus was measured by recognition latencies for self-relevant words (Study 1) and the completion of ambiguous sentences with first-person pronouns (Study 2). Neither rumination nor reflection predicted self-focused attention in either study. Rumination and reflection seem to be types of self-relevant motivation, not types of self-focused attention.

مقدمه انگلیسی

The study of self-focused attention has two research traditions. The first tradition, the study of self-awareness, explores the consequences of momentary awareness of the self ( Carver, 2003; Duval & Silvia, 2001; Duval & Wicklund, 1972). This research manipulates self-focused attention with conditions that make the self salient, such as mirrors, video cameras, and reminders of novel aspects of the self. The second tradition, the study of self-consciousness, explores individual-differences in self-focused attention ( Buss, 1980). The traditional view of self-consciousness proposes public and private dimensions, commonly measured by the self-consciousness scales ( Fenigstein, Scheier, & Buss, 1975). The character of self-awareness research has not changed much. Although objective self-awareness theory has expanded, recent research on self-awareness addresses the same concerns that motivated the original theory (see Silvia & Duval, 2001a)—the relationship between self-awareness and consistency motivation (Silvia & Duval, 2004; Wicklund & Duval, 1971), how people respond to discrepancies between self and standards (Duval & Lalwani, 1999; Ickes, Wicklund, & Ferris, 1973), and how causal attributions affect self-regulation (Duval & Wicklund, 1973; Duval & Silvia, 2002; Silvia & Duval, 2001b). Recent individual-differences research, however, has changed since the early days of public–private self-consciousness research. Public self-consciousness seems to have faded in popularity, perhaps due to critical reviews of its construct validity (Gibbons, 1990; Wicklund & Gollwitzer, 1987). Private self-consciousness remains popular, although its psychometric properties have been criticized. Many studies find that the private self-consciousness scale forms two subscales: internal-state awareness and self-reflection (e.g., Cramer, 2000; Creed & Funder, 1998; Nystedt & Ljungberg, 2002; Ruipérez & Belloch, 2003). The meaning of this finding is controversial, because the items forming the subscales and the correlations between the subscales vary (Bernstein, Teng, & Garbin, 1986; Britt, 1992; Duval & Silvia, 2001; Silvia, 1999). In response to limitations in the public–private approach, a second generation of individual-differences research has emerged. Several new models have appeared in recent years (Grant, Franklin, & Langford, 2002; McKenzie & Hoyle, 1999; Trapnell & Campbell, 1999). Of these, Trapnell and Campbell’s (1999) model of rumination and reflection has received the most attention (Carver, 2003; Joireman, Parrott, & Hammersla, 2002; Teasdale & Green, 2004). Rumination and reflection have been shown to predict other variables, but the critical tests of construct validity—relations with measures of self-directed attention—have not yet been conducted. In this article, we review the rumination–reflection model and present two studies that directly assessed whether rumination and reflection involve self-focused attention.

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