دلبستگی ناایمن و نشانه های افسردگی: نقش واسطه ای نشخوار فکری، همدلی و بخشش
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|31360||2009||5 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4630 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 46, Issue 3, February 2009, Pages 276–280
The authors investigated the associations between attachment, empathy, rumination, forgiveness, and depressive symptoms via the framework of attachment theory. Participants (N = 221; 141 F and 80 M) completed a battery of questionnaires. We hypothesized that (a) anxious and avoidant attachment would be negatively linked to dispositional forgiveness; (b) the anxious attachment–forgiveness link would be mediated through excessive rumination; (c) the avoidance attachment–forgiveness link would be mediated through lack of empathy; and (d) the insecure attachment–depression relation would, in turn, be partially mediated by the forgiveness process. SEM modeling confirmed these propositions, revealing the potential deleterious outcomes associated with insecure attachment and unforgiving responses to offenses.
Research generally points to the benefits of replacing anger with forgiveness for individuals, relationships, and societies. For example, forgiveness promotes harmony, trust, and reconciliation and improved mental well-being and physical health (e.g., Toussaint and Webb, 2005 and Worthington and Scherer, 2004). Despite benefits, evolutionary perspectives suggest that people are predisposed to respond with vengeance. However, after initial unforgiving motivations are evoked, forgiveness can be reached if the victim values the relationship, cares about the offender, and feels secure in the relationship (McCullough, 2008). When is this transformation of motivation more attainable? This study maintains that differences in motivation to forgive are representative of differences in relationship orientation. More specifically, we integrate attachment theory with an evolutionary theory of forgiveness to explore if excessive rumination and an inability to empathize help explain the links between insecure attachment and reduced forgiveness found in previous research (Burnette, Taylor, Worthington, & Forsyth, 2007). Specifically, we focus on forgivingness, or the dispositional tendency to be more or less forgiving across time, people and situations ( Roberts, 1995). We also extend past work by examining the mental health ramifications (i.e., depressive symptoms) of insecurely attached individuals’ responses to offenses.