ارتباط الکتروفیزیولوژیک نشخوار فکری اضطراب
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|31361||2009||14 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||11739 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Psychophysiology, Volume 71, Issue 2, February 2009, Pages 156–169
EEG coherence and EEG power response were recorded as 63 participants engaged in one of three experimental conditions: ‘personal rumination’, ‘nominal rumination’, and ‘baseline counting’. The rumination conditions were separated by a neutral (counting) task to eliminate neural carry-over effects. For personal rumination, participants spent 2 min ruminating about something in their life about which they were in two minds (i.e., in a state of personal conflict). For nominal rumination, they were presented with a conflict scenario (concerning buying a car) and instructed to ruminate about that for 2 min. The baseline counting task simply involved counting forwards from 1 at a speed comfortable to the individual. Participants completed various questionnaires to measure mood and also traits of personality (including trait anxiety). EEG data were analysed in the following wavebands: 4–6 Hz, 6–8 Hz, 8–10 Hz, 10–12 Hz, 12–20 Hz and 20–30 Hz. Results revealed that the scalp-wide EEG theta (4–6 Hz and 6–8 Hz) coherence associated with personal rumination was significantly greater than that associated with nominal rumination and baseline counting. Similarly, the scalp-wide 6–8 Hz and parietal–occipital 4–6 Hz power associated with personal rumination were significantly greater than power associated with the nominal rumination and power for baseline counting. For alpha, the 10–12 Hz scalp-wide EEG coherence associated with personal rumination was significantly greater than that associated with baseline counting. Otherwise, the scalp-wide 10–12 Hz power related to both nominal rumination and personal rumination were significantly greater than in response to baseline counting. For 20–30 Hz scalp-wide EEG power, data in response to the nominal rumination condition were significantly increased compared to data associated with the baseline counting condition. In terms of questionnaire data, tense arousal, anger/frustration, hedonic tone and energetic arousal were all influenced by rumination. This was largely in line with expectation. Also, mood state was influenced by neuroticism and state anxiety. Our EEG results are consistent with Gray and McNaughton's [Gray, J.A., McNaughton, N., 2000. The neuropsychology of Anxiety: An Anquiry into the Functions of the Septo-Hippocampal System. 2nd ed. Oxford University Press, Oxford.] account of recursive processing between the septo-hippocampal system and neocortex during goal-conflict resolution inherent in rumination. Evidence of posterior cingulate involvement in this processing was also discussed. Recommendations for future research, aimed at further evaluating the role of the SHS and the posterior cingulated, were outlined. Effects found in alpha were linked to increased vigilance whilst effects in beta were linked to cognitive and emotional aspects of the task. We conclude that these data provide new information of the neural processes associated with the psychological state of anxious rumination and, thus, hold implications for understanding normal and pathological anxiety.
Rumination is “the class of conscious thoughts that revolve around a common instrumental theme” (Martin and Tesser, 1996, p. 1). Such thoughts are well known to be disruptive in everyday life. For instance, Lyubomirsky, Kasri, and Zehm (2003) demonstrated the debilitating effects that dysphoric rumination can have on different academic tasks including reading pace, comprehension, lecture comprehension and proof reading. In other research, using mediational modelling, Muris, Roelofs, Rassin, Franken, and Mayer (2005) provided evidence to suggest that the cognitive factor rumination (together with worry) mediates neuroticism. This further demonstrates the potential for rumination to mediate and to give rise to aversive psychological states. Rumination has been assessed through measurements of the extent to which participants think about depressive symptoms (Nolen-Hoeksema et al., 1993), the intrusiveness of thoughts about a distressing event (Horowitz et al., 1979), searching for meaning of negative events, and thinking about what can be done to change one's situation in regard to negative events (Fritz, 1999). The aim of the work presented here relates to the final category; namely the involvement of rumination in the processing of different courses of action. In the current study, our primary aim is to investigate the electrophysiological processes (using scalp EEG) which underpin this type of rumination.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this study we asked participants to ruminate over something personally meaningful to them and also something which was merely nominal. Each rumination phase included goal-conflicts, but the former was subjectively important. We found that EEG theta coherence associated with two theta wavebands, and global EEG theta power associated with one theta waveband together with parieto-occipital theta power associated with a lower theta waveband, were higher when participants ruminated about something personally meaningful. These results are consistent with the Gray and McNaughton's (2000) account of recursive processing between the hippocampus and neocortex during goal-conflict resolution, and we interpret them in these terms. In addition, the EEG theta power effects which were found in the parieto-occipital region were tentatively linked to posterior cingulate activity, a key structure within the BIS architecture. We also found that high alpha coherence was higher during personal rumination than during the baseline counting condition. These data were explained in terms of proposals from the laboratory of Gennadij Knyazev who linked increased alpha activity to increased vigilance during phases of anxious rumination. Otherwise, effects found in the high beta range were related to the cognitive and emotionally laden nature of rumination compared to the baseline count condition. In terms of subjective data, we found that mood changes as expected during the rumination tasks, but these were not linked to participants' BIS levels. The failing to find effects which differentiated based on participants' BIS levels also held for the EEG results. Our conclusion is that these EEG findings provide new information on the neural basis of emotional rumination and, therefore, hold implications for the theoretical elucidation of normal and pathological anxiety, the full extent of which must await further empirical clarification.