بررسی اثرات زمین، ریتم و همراهی بر روی فراخوان تصویری کوتاه مدت و بلند مدت در کودکان مبتلا به اختلالات طیف اوتیسم
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|31494||2012||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4899 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : The Arts in Psychotherapy, Volume 39, Issue 4, September 2012, Pages 314–320
The purpose of the study was to examine paired associate effects of speech, rhythm, pitch, and accompaniment on short- and long-term recall of visual information in children with ASD and in neuro-typical children. The principle investigator (PI) collected phase one data (n = 42 children with ASD) during three separate one-week summer camps and phase two data (n = 14 neuro-typical children) during an academic year at a local religious institution. Participants received the seven-item visual stimuli paired with one of four music conditions (speech, rhythm, pitch, and accompaniment). The PI tested participants in both short- and long-term conditions. Results for phase one were statistically significant for term, with more accurate recall during the short-term phase. Although there were no significant between-condition differences, short- and long-term recall were most accurate during the accompaniment condition and least accurate in the speech condition. Regardless of condition, participants had better recall during sequential positions of primacy and recency. Neuro-typical participants had higher mean recall across all four conditions and two terms than participants with ASD. When delivering visual information to children with ASD, clinicians might consider pairing it with music to facilitate recall. Implications for clinical practice, limitations, and suggestions for future research are provided.
Contemporary society tends to be visually oriented. As such, children and adults with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) receive vast amounts of visual information but typically are unable to process it as quickly as people who are neuro-typical. Thus, their ability to encode and decode visual information can be negatively impacted and can lead to a frequently occurring information processing deficit. In order to facilitate memory and cognitive processing, researchers have investigated the benefits of visual information and paired associate relationships with memory for people with and without ASD. For example, people who are neuro-typical are able to recall their experiences and memories visually (Fredrickson & Kahneman, 1993) and remember words that lend themselves to picture images more efficiently than abstract, low-imagery words (Marschark, Richman, Yuille, & Hunt, 1987). Due to a plethora of learning applications, the ability to retain and recall information has been – and continues to be – an area of much consideration in academic, social, and vocational environments. People with ASD appear to exhibit the ability to recall some visual information. However, the complexity of the stimuli appears to be a confounding variable that decreases the accuracy of visual memory recall of people with ASD (Williams, Goldstein, & Minshew, 2006). Researchers have found that children with ASD performed similar to neuro-typical peers on delayed match-to-sample visual memory tasks (Barth, Fein, & Waterhouse, 1995) and seemed to present with adequate visual memory recall for pictures of common objects arranged randomly or sequentially (Prior & Chen, 1976). Ameli, Courchesne, Lincoln, Kaufman, and Grillon (1988) concluded that children with ASD along with their neuro-typical peers demonstrated significantly better visual recall of meaningful visual material than meaningless visual material. One method for enhancing memory is through the use of both visual and auditory cues. In his Dual Coding Theory (DCT), Paivio (1991) asserted that humans have more than one information processing system and noted that non-verbal and verbal processing systems work in tandem to help people encode and decode information. Thus, in order to augment learning, teachers should attempt to utilize more than one communication channel. Other scholars have supported Paivio's DCT in their research: In a literature review, Denis (1984) discussed how participants receiving imagery instructions (i.e., enhancement via visual cues) remembered more than participants who did not receive imagery instructions. Additionally, Levin and Berry (1980) demonstrated enhanced memory recall when participants listened to tape-recorded and graphically depicted newspaper stories compared to when participants only listened to the stories. In an attempt to provide a multi-sensory experience to enhance learning, educators have infused visual supports into academic and social environments of children with ASD (Hodgdon, 1995). Goldstein (1999) suggested that children with poor verbal imitation skills may be the best candidates for an Augmentative and Alternative Communication (AAC) system. Specifically, Picture Communication Symbols are the most commonly used line drawings for augmenting spoken language (Educating Children with Autism, 2001). Bondy and Frost (1994) examined the impact of the Picture Exchange Communication System (PECS) on the development of communication in 66 children with ASD. The authors reported that two of the 19 children who used PECS for less than one year acquired speech. Additionally, 39 of 66 children who used PECS for two years developed independent speech, 20 developed speech as they used PECS, and seven only used the PECS to communicate.