اثر آموزش ادراکی-حرکتی بر روی توجه در کودکان مبتلا به اختلالات طیف اوتیسم
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|31508||2012||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Research in Autism Spectrum Disorders, Volume 6, Issue 4, October–December 2012, Pages 1331–1336
The present study attempted to investigate the effect of perceptual-motor training on attention in children with autism spectrum disorders. The participants (20 girls and 20 boys) were divided into experimental and control groups. They were selected from among 85 subjects after primary tests to be matched. The design of the study was quasi-experimental including an independent variable, a pretest and a posttest. After considering the research hypotheses using descriptive statistics and one-way Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA), the results suggested a significant difference in posttest scores of experimental and control groups after independent variable being applied. The results also showed that perceptual-motor trainings for children with autism increase their attention because of the impact they have on increasing neurological and cognitive function.
The field of autism has become a major area of study in the fields of mental health and education worldwide (Adcock and Cuvo, 2009, Bhaumik et al., 2010, Brim et al., 2009 and Fernel and Gillberg, 2010). Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common, highly heritable neuro-developmental condition characterized by marked genetic heterogeneity (Durand et al., 2006 and Sebat et al., 2007). It is well known among parents and clinicians working with children with autism that the attention of these children is atypical and probably affects the triad of core features of autism, i.e., communication deficits, impairments in social relatedness, and restricted and repetitive behaviors and interests. In fact, difficulties in allocating attention in the expected ways are widely indicated as problematic in autism to the extent that some parents have endorsed problems with attention as the main cause of their child's autism (Ornitz, 1988). People with ASD experience change in attention from one stimulus to another due to the lack of control and dysfunction in the excitation aspects of the regulatory system (Mundy, Stingman, & Kasari, 1994). According to the next studies, from the cortical point of view adapting and processing of new stimulus also decrease in ASD people (Kaplan & Sadock, 1998). Scientists are trying to determine how the autism responds to their program and how training affects autism. Most of the studies in this regard have been concerned with the underlying conditions and parents and educators’ intervention. In this study, the assignment was a new program of which individuals had no prior experience. Therefore, in case the hypotheses of the study are corroborated, it may be construed that children with ASD are capable of enhancement of their attention with a Perceptual-motor training. Some studies have focused on the role of concrete reinforcements and real awards in the environment to attract and increase the attention in specific age groups of autistic children (Lewy & Dawson, 1992). A relatively large number of studies have been conducted in the area of teaching or enhancing attention used in everyday lives of the autistic people. Psychologists, physiotherapists, therapists and teachers also use a variety of teaching methods for the individuals in order for them to develop or enhance attention. They may use different techniques for this purpose. While teaching the individuals with autism, the physiotherapists or the therapists should know how to use assisted technology or any other subsidiary method or strategies. In the present study, a method was developed for enhancing attention in these children. Thus, the impact of perceptual-motor skills training on the brain structures in decreasing or increasing the attention in autistic children is of high significance.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The findings of this study indicate that perceptual and motor trainings result in attention increase in children with autism spectrum. Thus, children with autism spectrum can be helped to achieve increase in attention using perceptual and motor programs in planning educational programs and trainings for them. The findings of this study will be useful to the psychologists, teachers and therapists of ASD children in improving the quality of their performances.