آیا تمرکز زدایی مالی ، سرمایه گذاری منطقه ای را در زیرساخت های تولیدی پرورش می دهد ؟
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|3152||2013||30 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||8493 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : European Journal of Political Economy, Available online 25 March 2013
The aim of this paper is to analyze the effect of revenue decentralization on the provision of infrastructure at the sub-national level. We estimate the effects of revenue decentralization and earmarked grant financing on the level of sub-national infrastructure investment in 20 European countries over the period 1990-2009. The results are interpreted in light of the predictions of the theory on fiscal federalism. We find that it is sub-national infrastructure investment that increases after revenue decentralization and not investment in redistribution. However, the effect of revenue decentralization is lower the higher the use of earmarked grants to fund infrastructure investment.
Customer value can be considered simply as the perceived benefits of a specific good or service compared to its perceived cost by single customers or groups of customers. Customer value is thus a factor that impacts on the growth of demand at a micro level. It is created by the products offered (in this case flights) and by the interaction between customer and supplier. Economic theory indicates that demand growth is dependent on different factors including: • demand from business and leisure passengers, that is influenced by family and life models, tourist needs, economic development and business models; • supply which is influenced by technology and airline business models; • substitution by other transport opportunities like train transport and road transport. Fig. 1 shows the effects of different factors on the growth of air transport demand and customer value as a micro-level factor that has a direct influence on the macro-factors. The emphasis of customer value in air transport has been changing over time. Technological changes and the evolution of new business models can be identified as driving forces. In the pioneer stages of air transport, price did not matter much. In the historic archives there are hardly any posters or folders highlighting price. The emphasis was on basic factors as air links or routes and the transport itself. Even the quality of seating was basic to allow safe take-off weight. There was little protection against noise or cold; passengers just had to be transported relatively safe from A to B.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Airline managers of the future should be aware of customer value as an increasingly important factor for driving continued growth. It is important that a focus is put on real needs of the customers instead of stated preferences. Thus, existing data have to be properly used and interpreted as not to be mislead. Furthermore, product innovation based on new-customer segments and new technology should to be pushed, based on the hidden preferences of airline passengers.