چارچوب جدیدی برای درک مدیریت پروژه سازمانی از طریق سازمان بنادر و دریانوردی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|3179||2007||9 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6941 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Project Management, Volume 25, Issue 4, May 2007, Pages 328–336
This paper presents a theoretical contribution to the study of organisational project management and of the project management office (PMO). The PMO should no longer be considered an isolated island within an organisation. It is our premise that the PMO is part of a network of complex relations that links strategy, projects and structures and thus is a point of entry into the organisation to study the foundations of organisational project management. We argue that the study of such complex relationships within an organisation should turn away from the traditional positivist approach to a new conceptual framework. The proposed theoretical framework draws from three complementary fields – innovation, sociology and organisational theory – to form an innovative understanding of the PMO and organisational project management.
Innovation plays an important role in the place project management now has in organisations. Growth of a firm is associated with its capacity to constantly renew its product portfolio. At the same time, there is economic pressure to reduce the time to market. Both lead to a rise in the number of projects undertaken simultaneously within firms and consequently to the complexity of managing them . Innovative forms of organising are emerging  and not surprisingly we see quite a few concepts related to multi-project management emerging within the project management literature: programme and portfolio management  and , project-based or project-oriented organisation  and  and project management office . The PMI and the IPMA have confirmed the expansion of the field of project management beyond a focus on the management of projects to embrace the management of programs, portfolios and organisations that achieve their strategic objectives through projects, programs, and portfolios or “organisational project management”. The goal of organisational project management is not just to deliver projects on time, on budget and in conformity with technical and quality specifications. The goal is to create value for the business. A review of the literature does not provide a clear conceptualization or definition of organisational project management. What we observe globally is that the current project management literature is lacking two elements: theoretical foundations and valid, verified empirical models. The two are related. The current literature presents a major professional tendency aimed at short-term results. Though several models exist, the majority of them have yet to undergo a solid empirical validation process. These elements lead to the need for research that is aimed at understanding organisational project management structures and the dynamics through which project management contributes to organisational performance. We will review the current literature on related concepts. We will then attempt to define the concept of organisational project management and the place the PMO has in it. Finally, we will propose a basic framework that will support the exploration of organisational project management using the PMO as the gateway into the organisation. As suggested by Van de Ven in Engaged Scholarship, “the critical task is to adopt and use the models, theories, and research methods that are appropriate for the research problem and question being address” [8, p. 7]. Our framework is bold as it draws from three theoretical fields: innovation theory, sociology and organisational theory. Using innovation theories, we build on the concepts of social innovation systems and co-evolution theory, taking into account the history and context of the PMO at the organisational level and at the micro-level. The network structure approach and actor network theory (ANT) are from the field of sociology. Both will be used to depict the PMO as a network, the former in its structural aspect, and the latter in examining the relationships among the actors involved. The conceptualisation of organisational performance and of the value of the PMO is drawn from the competing values model that allows for the coexistence of a plurality of perspectives to evaluate organisational performance. Together these concepts open up new avenues for the study of organisational project management. We think that this approach offers a new perspective contributing to the revitalization of the field of project management. The model presented in this paper is being used as the theoretical basis of an empirical investigation of organisational project management . The research question of the current empirical work is “How to understand the PMO and its contribution to organisational performance?” This empirical work focuses on organisations that do projects for themselves rather than for external customers. These organisations have implemented PMOs as part of their strategy for managing projects and for dealing with the issues relative to organisational project management. The study of organisational project management is facilitated in these organisations because project management activities tend to concentrated and more easily visible in organisations that have implemented PMOs. The discussion that follows and the theoretical model are relevant, however, in other contexts.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
This paper provides a theoretical contribution that seeks to renew the project management research field. It aims at partially filling the missing link between the complexity of the reality in organisational project management and the current state of theoretical foundations on this filed. It adopts a clear constructivist approach in an area where literature is mostly positivist and limited to professional issues. We have first defined the organisational project management concept of which the PMO is part. Organisational project management opens the way for project management to become a sphere within the fields of management and organisation theory. We then propose a conceptual framework that mobilizes different organisational and innovation theories in order to bring fresh concepts that mirror the complexity of organisations where projects are an important structuring component. Both researchers and professionals should benefit from this research, which may provide a stronger basis for understanding the complex phenomena of structuring/organising in large organisations. The framework is currently being used and tested in an empirical study aimed at “understanding the PMO and its contributions to organisational performance”.