یکپارچه سازی به عنوان یک مفهوم مدیریت پروژه : مورد مطالعه روند نصب و راه اندازی در تحویل کالای صنعتی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|3182||2007||8 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : International Journal of Project Management, Volume 25, Issue 7, October 2007, Pages 714–721
This paper presents and analyses integration as a project management concept in industrial system deliveries. Attention is given to the aspect of integrating products and services as a functional whole, i.e. a solution. The study is based on interviews regarding the commissioning process in a number of different project companies. Commissioning is well representing integration as it is the part of the project life-cycle where earlier integration efforts are put into action, and can therefore be evaluated. Combining a literature review with our empirical observations we stress the importance of integration by managing and utilizing relationships throughout the project life-cycle. The outcome of the paper is a framework pinpointing the technical and social dimensions of integration.
This paper outlines different forms of integration and outcomes of integration as a project management concept in industrial projects. We concentrate on the distinct category of complex products and systems that differ in many regards from mass-produced goods . According to Hobday  the term complex is used to reflect the number of customized components, the breadth of knowledge and skills required and the degree of new knowledge involved in production as well as other critical product dimensions. This makes the issue of integration, or the “integration problem” , a delicate one. For one thing, companies need to master the chain of activities induced by engineer-to-order products. For another, they need to master the systems integration activity from not only a technical point of view, but also from an organizational point of view as the deliveries tend to involve a network of different suppliers and service providers . The issue of integration becomes even more relevant (and complicated) due to the recent trends to offer innovative combinations of products and services tailored to each customer’s needs – the so-called integrated solutions. In many cases these integrated solutions cover a large part of the entire value stream of capital goods . The need for concurrent engineering, which refers to the practice of incorporating various life-cycle related values of a product into the design at its early stages of development, asserts certain requirements on the integration process even further . Increased project complexity puts pressure on project management not only to deal with the management of the internal project team, but also to manage the wider inter-organizational teams, complex supply chains and relationships with several stakeholders. Most of all, project managers are in the front-line when it comes to assuring customer satisfaction . In turn, companies integrating the solutions increasingly rely on partners to supply and provide them with the components of the solutions. Consequently, recent literature point out that companies have to change their focus and develop new capabilities, expand their definition of the value chain and re-consider their position in the value chain, to deliver such complex products and systems (see e.g. , , ,  and ). All in all, we can see a restructuring throughout the entire value stream, which is bound to influence the way projects are integrated. Integration and coordination are indeed at the heart of much research in the field of organization theory ,  and . In this paper we want to shed light on the situation where whole project value chains are (re)structured and integrated in order to achieve the outcome. In particular, we investigate and stress the end dimension of integration as opposed to up-front and strategic driven integration. 1.1. Aim and method description This paper aims to increase the understanding of integration as a management concept for complex industrial projects. The paper stresses the importance of integration through relationships all through the project life-cycle. Discussions concerning integration found in the literature on projects, organization and engineering is reviewed, as this paper attempts to outline a framework focusing in particular on different kinds of integration in these fields, for achieving benefits for the deliveries of industrial projects. The research in this paper initially sets out to discuss the character and implications for integration in delivery projects under these new circumstances. The unit of analysis is organizations delivering large-scale, complex products and systems, or considerable parts thereof. We use a clinical research approach: theoretical reasoning combined with previous action research studies in addition with a recent exploratory study of the delivery, in particular the commissioning, process of projects. The commissioning process was chosen as the central focus of the delivery chain as it typically constitutes the end phase from a supply side point of view. It can be considered as the point in the delivery chain where all the parts of the project come together and should be verified as a working whole . From a concurrent engineering point-of view it, however, often becomes a problem solving task rather than merely a handing over of the project to the customer. Therefore, the whole chain of activities – ranging from sales and design to handing over and warranty – has been addressed. The empirical study was carried out as a two-step exploratory study based on interviews on routines, attitudes and ideas of the commissioning process with several persons representing different positions and functions in industrial, project-based companies. 1.2. Outline of the paper The paper is organized in four sections. In Section 1, the background to the study was presented and the research question was defined. Section 2 is a literature review that serves as the theoretical foundation, presenting the origins and perspectives from which the concept of integration is studied. The section begins with a short introduction on recent trends in project business. It proceeds with issues regarding the themes posed above, and ends by discussing the trend towards delivering large engineering projects relying on integration in the management process (which are central to our argument). Section 3 presents the empirical data we draw on in this paper, illustrating the cases and the results form the study through a thorough analysis. Section 4 summarizes and concludes, as well as outlines some directions for future research and development on the presented framework.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Suppliers are increasingly asked to provide entire, integrated solutions instead of only stand-alone equipment and/or services. In essence, this means that they are also supposed to assume the role of systems integrators on behalf of their clients . Previously, the role of strategic centers has been emphasized . Commonly, integration is also considered an up-front activity (cf. PMI Standards Committee ). In this paper, we have drawn attention to the integration that occurs at the end of projects. This is about, firstly, integrating the elements of the project in a rather technical sense and, secondly, forward integrating towards the following phase in the value stream, the operator and/or the customer, into the project. We argue that these activities have the dual character of both being back-end integrators and ‘customer facing units’. We claim that this enlargement of scopes significantly impacts on the activities of project management. In this paper we contribute to this issue through an exploratory study on the commissioning process in project-based companies. The main conclusions of this study are that by coordinating the commissioning process by common rules and by adding a customer-centric thinking to the delivery organization, the project is adding value to the commissioning process as it thus reveals the purpose of it, and in that way limit its diversity. From this follows that the solution providing companies should not only focus on their own deliveries and their customer in the project, but they also constantly need to focus on activities related to the other suppliers and their deliveries. To bring it to a more practical level: this means that the project schedules must not only include the vital stages for a specific company’s “own” activities – it should also incorporate activities of the other stakeholders in the network, which affect or are affected during the project delivery. The current study is part of a larger ongoing research program of different forms of integration mechanisms and outcomes from integration as a project management concept for achieving benefits in industrial projects. This study brings the framework one step further by identifying the technical and social dimensions of integration in complex project contexts. Our findings hence open the way for future research, in which we aim to further develop the framework consisting of different integration mechanisms both from scientific and managerial points of views.