استفاده از یک چارچوب خلاقیت برای شناخت حیوانات
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|32056||2004||13 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||5549 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : New Ideas in Psychology, Volume 22, Issue 2, August 2004, Pages 143–155
In the field of creativity, psychologists typically only study humans and biologists or ethologists usually focus either on animal problem solving or consider creativity to be an evolutionary adaptation. Yet a fuller application of creativity principles to animal behavior may both shed insight into animal cognition and expand current notions of creativity. We propose a framework for animal creativity based both on animal behavior research and creativity theories. The framework proposes different creative capabilities required for each level—i.e., one does not have to complete level 2 to reach level 3, however one does have to possess higher creative abilities. The first level is the simple ability to recognize novelty. Next is observational learning, which raises questions about imitation, intention of behavior, and the cultural transmission of creative behaviors. At the peak is creating a tool or a behavior with the specific understanding that is new and different.
Ever since Guilford's (1950) call to arms for more research on creativity, there have been dozens of outstanding theories of creativity proposed. Some theories focus on the creative person—such as Amabile (1982) and Amabile (1996) Componential model, in which an individual's motivation for the task at hand intersects with both domain-relevant skills (such as knowledge) and creativity-relevant skills (such as being able to generate novel ideas). Theories can also focus on the creative product—such as Sternberg, Kaufman, and Pretz's (2002) Propulsion theory, which proposes eight different types of creative contributions that can advance a field. Other theories focus on the creative process, such as Csikszentmihalyi's (1990) theory of “Flow,” a state of intense engagement that often is associated with creative performance. Yet although these many theories are expansive and cover most imaginable facets of creativity, they focus solely on humans. This focus is not surprising, as most creativity researchers are psychologists, not biologists, and in strictly biological terms, creativity is very hard to describe (Greenberg, 2003). Biologists or ethologists who have studied creativity have often focused on animal insight or problem solving—narrow aspects of creativity theory—or examined innovative behavior as an evolutionary adaptation in an individual species. Yet a fuller application of some psychological creativity theories and principles to animal behavior may serve two purposes: it may shed additional insight into animal cognition, and it may expand current notions of creativity. In this paper, we propose a framework for animal creativity based both on animal behavior research and creativity theories. We hope that this framework will prove helpful in future studies of advanced animal cognition (Fig. 1).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The study of creativity does not have to be confined to humans. By modifying our conceptions of the nature of creativity, wide-ranging behaviors such as the perception of novelty, social learning, and innovative acts can be studied. There are also many practical implications to studying creativity that may enhance the work of those who interact with animals on a daily basis, such as innovative training sessions, desensitization, and improvement of enrichment programs. Through the study of creativity and cognitive abilities in animals, and further research that may use the Three-Step Pyramid, we hope to gain insight into the larger questions of animal intelligence.