استفاده از فناوری اطلاعات و خلاقیت: یافته هایی از کودکان و پروژه فناوری
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|32091||2011||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 28, Issue 2, March 2012, Pages 370–376
This research examined relationships between children’s information technology (IT) use and their creativity. Four types of information technology were considered: computer use, Internet use, videogame playing and cell phone use. A multidimensional measure of creativity was developed based on Sternberg and Lubart, 1999 and Subrahmanyam et al., 2006 test of creative thinking. Participants were 491 12-year olds; 53% were female, 34% were African American and 66% were Caucasian American. Results indicated that videogame playing predicted of all measures of creativity. Regardless of gender or race, greater videogame playing was associated with greater creativity. Type of videogame (e.g., violent, interpersonal) was unrelated to videogame effects on creativity. Gender but not race differences were obtained in the amount and type of videogame playing, but not in creativity. Implications of the findings for future research to test the causal relationship between videogame playing and creativity and to identify mediator and moderator variables are discussed.
Creativity has been defined as a mental process involving the generation of new ideas or concepts, or new associations between existing ideas or concepts. From a scientific standpoint the products of creative thought are usually considered to have both originality and appropriateness. Although creativity appears to be a simple concept in the parlance of everyday life, its meaning and measurement have eluded the scientific community for decades. In fact it is a very complex concept that is difficult to define and measure (Runcho & Albert, 2010). Over one hundred definitions of creativity exist in the literature, spanning a variety of disciplines (Hocevar and Bachelor, 1989, Park and Byrnes, 1984 and Parkhurst, 1999). Creativity is unique among scientific phenomena insofar as there is no single, authoritative perspective or definition of creativity. Given the diversity in conceptualizations of creativity it is no surprise that there is also diversity in how it is measured. A popular approach to the measurement of creativity is the psychometric approach, pioneered by Guilford (1967). Most creativity measures in use today are based at least in part on Guilford’s theory of creativity. The theory posits that the ability to envision multiple solutions to a problem lies at the core of creativity (Guilford, 1967 and Guilford, 1982). The Torrance Test of Creativity (Torrance, 1987) is based on Guilford’s theory and is one of the most reliable and valid measures of children’s creativity. In this research we used the Torrance Test to obtain a multidimensional measure of creativity in our 12-year old participants. Research on the effects of using information technology has increased exponentially during the Information Age, outpaced only by the growth of information technology itself. In the previous century the primary focus was on the effects of computer-based learning on children’s cognitive development (Wartella & Jennings, 2000). This line of research was quickly replaced by research on Internet effects, ignoring the fact that the computer is the primary vehicle for delivering the Internet, although the handheld may soon take the lead. The Pew Internet and American Life Project holds what is probably the most comprehensive set of national (US) survey research on the who, what, where, when and why of Internet use (e.g., Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2005, Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2006 and Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2007). Videogames effects have been a popular research topic perhaps because playing videogames is a popular activity. According to the Entertainment Software Association (2011) 72% of American households play video or computer games. Both “good news” and “bad news” have emerged from the research. On the positive side, videogame playing has been related to visual-spatial skills (Green and Bavelier, 2003, Green and Bavelier, 2006 and Green and Bavelier, 2007), skills which may be linked to performance in mathematics, engineering and science (Subrahmanyam, Smahel, & Greenfield, 2006). One experimental study suggested a causal relationship between videogame playing and visual-spatial skill in adults (Green & Bavelier, 2007). A recent correlational study suggested a positive relationship between videogame playing and visual-spatial skills in children (Jackson, von Eye, Fitzgerald, Witt, & Zhao, 2009). On the negative side, videogame playing has been linked to aggressive cognition and behavior in children and adults (Anderson et al., 2007, Bushman and Anderson, 2002 and Gentile and Anderson, 2003; Gentile, Lynch, Linder, & Walsh, 2004). A handful of studies have demonstrated a causal relationship (e.g., Anderson et al., 2003). However, as gaming enthusiasts were quick to point out, the effect size for the relationship between videogame playing and children’s aggression is half the effect size for the relationship between watching violent TV and children’s aggression (Gee, 2005). Jackson and colleagues summarized the research on the cognitive, social, psychological and physical consequences of Internet use for children (Jackson, Zhao, Fitzgerald, von Eye, & Harold, 2006) and adolescents (Jackson, 2008). Most of the studies included in these summaries were correlational studies. Whether using the Internet causes real changes in cognitive, social, psychological and moral thinking and/or behavior remains an unanswered question. Even the much discussed relationship between Internet use and obesity is likely mediated by other factors (e.g., creen time versus activity time). Research has only quite recently turned its attention to cell phones. The questions addressed vary widely, ranging from “Does using a cell phone increase the probability of developing brain cancers?” to “Are cell phones decimating your social life?” At this early stage of studying a rapidly changing technology the only conclusion that can be drawn is that cell phones should not be used while driving. They divert attention away from the driving task and use up cognitive resources needed for that task (Butt and Phillips, 2007, CellSigns Report: Text Message Statistics (2008) and Neilson Company, 2008, Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2010 and Pew Internet and American Life Project, 2011). In this research we took an exploratory approach to examining relationships between a complex and important concept – creativity, and a variety of information technologies, specifically, computers, the Internet, videogames and cell phones. Because so little is known about the causes of creativity, and because so little is known about the effects of IT use, examining their relationships is an important first step in understanding both. We were particularly interested in the relationship between videogames playing and creativity because playing videogames has become a core activity in the lives of today’s children (Entertainment Software Association (2011) and, most likely, tomorrow’s adults. The average age of videogame players is 37 years old (Entertainment Software Association, 2011).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
Results of our research indicate that there is a relationship between videogame playing and creativity in 12-year old children. No other type of information technology showed any relationships, regardless of how creativity was measured. There were no gender differences in creativity despite gender differences in videogame playing. Nor were there race difference in creativity or videogame playing although there were race and gender differences in the use of other types of information technologies. For example African American males were least likely to use cell phones whereas African American females used cell phone more than any other race × gender group. The next logical step for future research is to determine if the relationship between videogame playing and creativity is causal and, if so, in what direction. Learning that videogame playing contributes to creativity should motivate game designers to first identify the aspects of videogame activity are responsible for these effects. Once identified then videogames can be designed to optimize the development of creativity while retaining their entertainment values such that a new generation of edutaining video games will blur the distinction between education and entertainment,