ذهنیت رقابتی، خلاقیت و نقش نظارتی تمرکز
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|32109||2013||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6670 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Thinking Skills and Creativity, Volume 9, August 2013, Pages 59–68
We examined how regulatory focus and intentions to compete rather than cooperate with group members relate to creativity. Study 1 showed that a promotion focus (i.e., a focus on ideals) activated a cooperative mindset, whereas a prevention focus (i.e., a focus on responsibilities) activated a competitive mindset. Whereas mindsets had no direct effect on creativity, a prevention focus was found to diminish subsequent creativity. Study 2 showed that a cooperative mindset activated a promotion focus, whereas a competitive mindset activated a prevention focus. Prevention focus carried the indirect negative effect of competitive mindsets on creativity. In addition, we tested whether global versus local information processing may explain these effects.
In recent years, much research has investigated the influence of cooperative versus competitive behavior on subsequent performance. An extensive line of research has found a positive effect of cooperative behavior on achievement (Johnson et al., 1981 and Roseth et al., 2008). However, studies that have examined creativity have reported both positive and negative effects of cooperation (overview see Amabile, 1996). To date, the conditions under which cooperation enhances or diminishes creativity remain unclear. It has recently been argued that cooperative group work may help students develop critical thinking skills (Chen and Tjosvold, 2002 and Fung and Howe, 2012). Cooperative group settings may lend themselves to teaching of thinking skills and creativity. However, are group settings also beneficial if students are competing with one another? Under which conditions does competition in groups enhance or diminish creative performance? The present research closely examined the cognitive and motivational processes that may induce cooperative or competitive mindsets and, thus, change subsequent creativity. This research question is relevant for educational and organizational settings in which creative ideas are often developed in groups. Individuals may not necessarily be willing to use cooperative strategies toward group members, but may choose competitive strategies when working in a group (Johnson et al., 1983 and Simmons et al., 1988). Typically, individuals with cooperative mindsets strive for the success of the group and, therefore, show positive attitudes toward successful group outcomes (Kelley and Thibaut, 1978 and Simmons et al., 1988). On the other hand, individuals with competitive mindsets strive for their personal benefit and seek success by outperforming other group members (Deutsch, 1949 and van Knippenberg et al., 2001). Moreover, if individuals have the perception that individual goal attainment is negatively correlated with others’ goal attainment they may perceive competitive settings to be threatening (Deutsch, 1949). The present research was based on the rationale that the activation of a competitive mindset results in the willingness to choose competitive strategies toward group members (Carnevale and Probst, 1998 and Simmons et al., 1988). We expected a bidirectional link between competitive mindsets and motivational factors, such as regulatory focus. Moreover, cognitive and motivational processes were expected to enhance or diminish subsequent creative performance (Förster, 2012). In the first experiment, we investigated whether motivational states (i.e., a prevention focus) activate competitive mindsets and diminish creative performance. In the second experiment, we examined whether competitive mindsets diminish creativity in situations that activate a prevention focus. Comparing the results from these two studies we aimed to get insight into underlying processes that may lead to increased or diminished creativity.