مهارت های ذهن آگاهی و رفتار فردی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|32140||2008||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4840 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 44, Issue 5, April 2008, Pages 1235–1245
We discuss the multidimensional nature of mindfulness and its relation to interpersonal feelings and performance. We examined the factor structure and internal reliability of a self-report measure of mindfulness, the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS; Baer, Smith, & Allen, 2004), in Dutch speaking Psychology students (n = 113) and parents (n = 246). We replicated the four factors proposed by Baer et al. (2004): Observe, Describe, Act With Awareness and Accept Without Judgement. The Dutch KIMS and all elements of mindfulness appeared invariant across samples. All elements of mindfulness were positively associated with expressing oneself in various social situations. A greater tendency for mindful observation was associated with more engagement in empathy. Mindful description, acting with awareness, and non-judgemental acceptance were associated with better identification and description of feelings, more body satisfaction, less social anxiety, and less distress contagion.
Mindfulness has been defined as a state of mind in which one focuses on experience in the present moment in a non-judgemental way (Kabat-Zinn, 1994 and Marlatt and Kristeller, 1999). Based on their experience with mindfulness exercises, (Dimidjian and Linehan, 2003 and Linehan, 1993) have discriminated four mindfulness skills that can be taught or practiced: Mindful observation is the careful attending to internal and external phenomena (e.g., thoughts, emotions, sounds, smells, or proprioceptive sensations). To act with awareness is to fully engage in a current activity with undivided attention. To accept without judgement is to be non-evaluative about ones experiences in the present moment. Mindful description or experiential expression is the immediate, non-judgemental labelling of observations, without conceptual analysis. Although most mindfulness measures are one-dimensional self-reports, an exploratory factor analysis of their items supports multifaceted conceptions of mindfulness (Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer, & Toney, 2006). One of the earliest measures of mindfulness was the Mindful Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS; Brown & Ryan, 2003), which measures the extent to which one acts with awareness in daily life. Baer et al. (2004) have developed a multidimensional self-report questionnaire in line with the theory of Dimidjian and Linehan (2003): the Kentucky Inventory of Mindfulness Skills (KIMS). Factor analyses revealed a four-factor solution reflecting the four mindfulness skills that the scales were designed to measure (Baer et al., 2004): Observe (OBS), Describe (DES), Act With Awareness (ACT), and Accept Without Judgement (ACC).