آموزش خلاقیت تعین شده: اثرات درباره خلاق خودکارآمدی و تولید خلاقانه
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|32167||2015||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||7550 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Thinking Skills and Creativity, Volume 16, June 2015, Pages 51–61
This paper presents a study on the effect of a new program of embodied creativity training on the trainees’ creative self-efficacy and creative production. In the training program 180 trainees were trained for 39 h over a period of nine weeks. Trainee's creative self-efficacy and creative production (originality, elaboration and fluency) were tested pre and post of the training. One month after the program finished, representatives of trainees and all trainers were interviewed in order to develop a qualitative understanding of the effects and potential improvements of the training program. The results show a significant increase in creative self-efficacy as well as in creative production. Implications for embodied creativity training are discussed.
Today, people have generated a variety of creativity training methods such as Brain-storming and Brain-writing (Osborn, 1953), Synectics (Gordon, 1961), Lateral Thinking (De Bono, 1992), TRIZ (Altshuller, Shulyak, Rodman, & Fedoseev, 1997), Mind Mapping (Wycoff, 1991), Creative Problem Solving (Parnes, 1992), Six Thinking Hats (De Bono, 1985), and creative checklists (Davis & Roweton, 1968). Some training programs also include systematic use of motivation, informative instruction, creativity theory, energisers, etc. Karwowski and Soszynski (2008) suggest that methods of creativity training have different focus like abarietic training (fighting barriers to creative functioning), instrumental training (solving problems creatively), personality training (strengthening the importance of personality for creativity), inventive training (gaining experience of using inventive techniques), art focused training and imagination training. Creativity training has been found to have an effect on creative abilities (Rose and Lin, 1984, Scott et al., 2004 and Torrance, 1972). Among them, there are two approaches of creativity training. One is embodied creativity training, which refers to an approach to the development of creative abilities that focuses on the trainee to become more creative. Embodied creativity training programs are more action-oriented. They focus on exercise and practice and primarily use short exercises, facilitated processes and workshops to provide the trainees with experiences ( Burstiner, 1973, Glover, 1980, Kangas, 2010, Khatena, 1971 and Miller et al., 1970 Nelson and Lalemi, 1991, Parker, 1998 and Zachopoulou et al., 2006). Examples of embodied creativity training programs include drama education ( Hui and Lau, 2006 and Lin, 2010), creative drama ( Karakelle, 2009) and role play training ( Karwowski & Soszynski, 2008). The other approach is reflective creativity training, which focuses on developing understanding of theories, models, tools, techniques or processes. It primarily uses discussion, reading, lecturing, seminar and workshops ( Birdi et al., 2012, Byrge and Hansen, 2013, Clapham and Schuster, 1992, Cropley and Cropley, 2000, Feldhusen et al., 1969 and Hennessey et al., 1989 Jausovec, 1994, Osburn and Mumford, 2006 and Robbins and Kegley, 2010). Up till now, studies show that creativity can be improved through training (Rose and Lin, 1984, Scott et al., 2004 and Torrance, 1972). But we still know little about the embodied creativity training. The aim of this study is to exam a new embodied training program and its training effect. The program had 180 participants and lasted 39 h. The training effect of this embodied training program included creative self-efficacy and creative production. Creative production refers to fluid thinking, original thinking and elaborative thinking (Torrance, 1974). It was measured by divergent thinking tests (Hocevar & Bachelor, 1989). Self-efficacy means one's perceived capability for oneself (Bandura, 1997 and Schunk and Rice, 1987) or one's confidence in own creative ability (Tierney & Farmer, 2002). Creative self-efficacy may be necessary in order to tolerate the high risk of failure, the various hindrances and the negative social evaluation that often comes with creativity (Tierney & Farmer, 2002). A relation between creative self-efficacy and creative production has been suggested (Lubart, 1994) and empirically supported (Choi, 2004, Redmond et al., 1993, Tierney and Farmer, 2002 and Tierney and Farmer, 2004). In this study, we will exam the effect of embodied creativity training on trainees’ creative self-efficacy and creative production. The structure of the rest of the paper is as follows: Part 2 presents the embodied creativity training program; Part 3 introduces the research method; Part 4 is the result analysis; and Part 5 is the conclusion and discussion.