جنبه های ذهن آگاهی - نتایج یک مطالعه آنلاین بررسی پرسشنامه ذهن آگاهی فرایبورگ
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|32170||2009||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4884 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 46, Issue 2, January 2009, Pages 224–230
There is an ongoing discussion about the definition of mindfulness including the question whether mindfulness is a one-dimensional or multidimensional construct. Research on the Freiburg mindfulness inventory (FMI) has also reflected this debate. We have investigated the psychometric properties of the FMI-14-item in an online convenience sample of n = 244 individuals (150 female; mean age 28.7 (SD = 8.76)) with (n = 75) and without (n = 169) regular meditative training). A simplified version of the beck depression inventory (BDI-V) and the trait subscale of the state-trait-anxiety-inventory (STAI-T) were used for determining criterion validity. A one-dimensional (α = .83) and an alternative two-dimensional solution (αF1 = .77; αF2 = .69) of the FMI-14 were tested with a confirmatory factor analysis and yielded suboptimal fit indices. An exploratory analysis resulted in a reduced 8-item version of the two-dimensional solution with better fit indices, but low internal consistency (αF1 = .71; αF2 = .64). The factors could be identified as “Presence” (F1) and “Acceptance” (F2). Further investigation revealed that the substantial negative relationship between mindfulness and anxiety and depression is completely due to the “Acceptance” factor of mindfulness. This suggests that there may be heuristic value in the two-factorial solution, although for practical purposes it seems sufficient to assess mindfulness as one-dimensional construct.
Mindfulness and its relationship with health related parameters have become a focus of interest within the health sciences. Mindfulness-based-stress reduction (MBSR) programs have generally shown efficacy for improving various medical conditions and emotional symptoms (Baer, 2003, Grossman et al., 2004 and Ott et al., 2006), although methodological variability in some studies and particularly paucity of randomized controlled trials precludes strong conclusions (Toneatto & Nguyen, 2007). Nevertheless, there is a growing body of evidence that mindfulness is particularly beneficial for coping with depression, anxiety and stress (Grossman et al., 2004 and Segal et al., 2002). Although the concept of mindfulness was originally derived from Buddhist psychology, mindfulness can be understood in secular terms as the mental ability to focus on the direct and immediate perception of the present moment with a state of non-judgemental awareness, voluntarily suspending evaluative cognitive feedback (Hayes & Shenk, 2004). With increasing evidence of beneficial health effects of mindfulness training, assessment of mindfulness also became desirable. To date, different scales have been developed such us (1) the Mindfulness and Attention Awareness Scale (MAAS; 15 items, 1 factor, α = .82–.87, rtt 1 = .81; Brown & Ryan, 2003), (2) theKentuckyInventoryofMindfulnessScale (KIMS; 39 items, 4 factors, α = .83–.91, rtt = .65–.86; Baer, Smith, & Allen, 2004), (3) theFiveFacetsMindfulnessQuestionnaire (FFMQ; 39 items; 1 factor, 5 facets, α = .71–.92; Baer, Smith, Hopkins, Krietemeyer, & Toney, 2006) the (4) TorontoMindfulnessScale (TMS; 39 items, 2 factors, α = .95; Lau et al., 2006), (5) theCognitiveandAffectiveMindfulnessScale, Revised (CAMS-R; 12 items, 1 factor, 4 facets, α = .74–.77; Feldman, Hayes, Kumar, Greeson, and Laurenceau, 2007), or (6) theFreiburgMindfulnessInventory (FMI; Walach, Buchheld, Buttenmüller, Kleinknecht, & Schmidt, 2006), available in a long (FMI-30, 30 items, 1 factor, α = .93−.94) and a short version (FMI-14, 14 items, 1 factor, α = .79−.86). The empirical status of these measures is comparable: all were replicated in confirmatory analysis and have seen promising external validation in different types of populations (with the exception of the CAMS-R that draws from student samples only). However, there are considerable differences concerning the definition and operationalisation of mindfulness: Whereas most inventories include several aspects of mindfulness such as awareness or an attitude of Acceptance, the MAAS focuses exclusively on the subjective experience of awareness. The KIMS and the FFMQ are based on skills as defined in Dialectical Behavior Therapy ( Welch, Rizvi, & Dimidjan, 2006). In contrast to the other inventories, the TMS measures mindfulness after meditation as a state-like construct. Finally, the FMI was developed by the help of experts of Buddhist psychology and may thus capture the essence of mindfulness more adequately ( Grossman, 2008). For that reason we confined our research to this scale. Whereas Buchheld, Grossman, and Walach (2001) argued for four interpretable factors of the FMI-30, Walach et al. (2006) have recently presented a one-dimensional short form (FMI-14). On the other hand, Ströhle (2006) found evidence for a two-factorial solution of the short form. As there is ambiguity concerning the factorial structure, we have decided to further investigate the psychometric properties of the FMI-14 in another validation study to clarify its factorial structure. As mindfulness-based cognitive therapy has been advocated for depression and anxiety treatment (Finucane and Mercer, 2006 and Segal et al., 2002), we sought evidence of criterion validity aspects of the scale by testing it together with a modified version of the Beck Depression Inventory (BDI-V; Schmitt, Altstötter-Gleich, Hinz, Maes, & Brähler, 2006) and the Trait-Subscale (STAI-T) of the Spielberg State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (Laux, Glanzmann, Schaffner, & Spielberger, 1981). This paper reports on the psychometric properties and factorial structure of the FMI as well as validity aspects with respect to the BDI-V and the STAI-T.