روابط میان خودشیفتگی، اعتماد به نفس و بزهکاری در یک نمونه از نوجوانان در معرض خطر
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|32188||2007||10 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Journal of Adolescence, Volume 30, Issue 6, December 2007, Pages 933–942
The present study explores the relation between narcissism and delinquency among 372 at-risk 16–18-year-olds. The study also considered the relation between narcissism and self-esteem, as well as the potential interaction between narcissism and self-esteem for predicting delinquency in this age group. Narcissism and self-esteem were positively interrelated; however, only narcissism was significantly correlated with delinquency. The results suggested that low self-esteem was actually associated with delinquency when controlling for narcissism. So-called adaptive narcissism was positively correlated with self-esteem, but maladaptive narcissism was not related to self-esteem. Limitations and directions for future research in this area are discussed.
Much empirical and media attention have been focused on personality and social risk factors for youth delinquency and antisocial behavior. Two constructs of interest in this research have been self-esteem and, more recently, narcissism (e.g., Barry, Frick, & Killian, 2003). Low self-esteem has been implicated in a variety of youth problems (Donnellan, Trzesniewski, Robins, Moffitt, & Caspi, 2005; Trzesniewski et al., 2006). However, blanket attempts to raise youth self-esteem as a remedy have met with disfavor (e.g., Baumeister, Smart, & Boden, 1996), in part, because of the unrealistic nature of providing constant positive feedback across all situations. Another reason for this concern is the belief that constant positive feedback could foster a sense of entitlement or narcissism (Baumeister et al., 1996). Although some theorists have considered narcissism as simply an extreme form of high self-esteem, most researchers have distinguished the two. Self-esteem can be considered one's overall self-evaluation, whereas narcissism can be defined as grandiosity with preoccupation over one's status compared to, and in the eyes of, others (Bushman & Baumeister, 1998; Raskin, Novacek, & Hogan, 1991). Research has delineated the positive self-views associated with each construct, with high self-esteem being associated with positive views on agentic (e.g., intellect, extraversion) and communal (e.g., agreeableness) characteristics and narcissism being confined to positive self-views on agentic features (Campbell, Rudich, & Sedikides, 2002). Thus, to the extent that positive self-views incorporate other people, narcissism seems to relate to seeking admiration from others (Raskin et al., 1991) more so than getting along with them. The relation between narcissism and aggression has been well-documented among adults in laboratory settings (e.g., Barry, Chaplin, & Grafeman, 2006; Bushman & Baumeister, 1998). Research with youth has found that narcissism is associated with conduct problems (Barry et al., 2003) and that some features may be associated with internalizing symptoms (Washburn, McMahon, King, Reinecke, & Silver, 2004). To date, narcissism and its behavioral correlates have not been extensively investigated among adolescents. Research on narcissism has repeatedly delineated between adaptive and maladaptive features (e.g., Barry et al., 2003; Emmons, 1984; Wink, 1991) or levels (Lapsley & Aalsma, 2006) of narcissism. Specifically, findings among adults suggest that characteristics of narcissism indicating feelings of entitlement, a willingness to exploit others, and a strong desire to be the center of attention are associated with impulsivity, sensation seeking, and other indicators of social maladjustment (e.g., Emmons, 1984; Raskin & Terry, 1988). Characteristics indicating a sense of authority/leadership and self-sufficiency have been related to variables considered socially desirable including assertiveness, independence, and self-confidence (Raskin & Terry, 1988). Applying this maladaptive/adaptive distinction to the measurement of youth narcissism, Barry and colleagues (2003), found that maladaptive narcissism was associated with conduct problems, callous-unemotional traits, and low self-esteem. Conversely, adaptive narcissism was not significantly related to conduct problems or callous-unemotional traits and was related to high self-esteem, despite a strong correlation between maladaptive and adaptive narcissism. A more recent study (Barry, Frick, Adler, & Grafeman, in press) found that maladaptive narcissism was a unique predictor of delinquency in a community sample of adolescents up to three years later. Washburn and colleagues (2004) found that exhibitionistic features of narcissism were related to internalizing symptoms, exploitativeness was associated with proactive aggression, and adaptive narcissism was positively related to self-esteem. The pattern of associations between self-esteem and different aspects of narcissism in these studies is similar to that described by Brown and Zeigler-Hill (2004) who noted that dominance (e.g., feelings that one is better than, or has authority over, others) may explain some of the relations between measures of self-esteem and narcissism. Research has discussed how narcissism and self-esteem may uniquely predict, or interact to predict, problematic behavior (e.g., Barry et al., 2003; Rhodewalt, Madrian, & Cheney, 1998). Baumeister and colleagues (1996) suggested that at least a “veneer” of high self-esteem (i.e., narcissism) can be linked to aggression in adults and that high self-esteem should thus be considered a risk factor for aggression. However, recent research among youth has indicated that low self-esteem is most consistently related to problematic behavior (Donnellan et al., 2005; Trzesniewski et al., 2006). Likewise, the review by Baumeister, Campbell, Krueger, and Vohs (2003) notes that studies have typically found the relation between self-esteem and delinquency to be weak to moderate in the negative direction. Further, in a previous youth study, narcissism was particularly associated with conduct problems for those who also reported lower self-esteem (Barry et al., 2003). Possible developmental influences on the relations between self-esteem and narcissism are suggested from existing evidence. A negative correlation between self-esteem and narcissism in preadolescents has been found (Barry et al., 2003) with small, positive correlations being found among slightly older youth (Barry et al., 2003; Calhoun, Glaser, Stefurak, & Bradshaw, 2000). Among adults, several studies have reported moderate, positive correlations between narcissism and self-esteem (e.g., Bushman & Baumeister, 1998; Rhodewalt & Morf, 1998). Including older adolescents in this research allows for further consideration of potential developmental changes in the relations among self-perception and clinically important variables. Moreover, considering only linear relations between self-esteem and narcissism does not examine the possibility that narcissism may be associated with both particularly high and particularly low self-esteem or with fragile/unstable self-esteem. Rhodewalt and Morf (1998) have described narcissists as demonstrating a “positive but fragile sense of self-worth” (p. 683). Because narcissists are thought to depend on admiration from others to maintain their self-esteem (Raskin et al., 1991), the lack of positive feedback may cause their self-esteem to falter. Thus, the relation between self-esteem and narcissism seems sufficiently complex to conclude that narcissism is not simply extremely high self-esteem, particularly among youth for whom self-perception may be less stable. The primary purpose of this study was to help fill a “developmental gap” in the literature concerning the relation between narcissism and externalizing or antisocial behaviors. Research has consistently demonstrated a positive relation between narcissism and aggression in adults (e.g., Bushman & Baumeister, 1998; Wink, 1991). Among youth (Barry et al., 2003; Washburn et al., 2004), narcissism has been found to be related to conduct problems. Empirical studies of the connection between adolescent problem behaviors and the conceptualizations of narcissism (i.e., as a collection of measurable characteristics) that predominate the adult literature have been scarce. Thus, the present study sought to investigate a previously established personality–behavior relation in older adolescents. Consistent with previous research, it was hypothesized that narcissism would be significantly related to delinquency. Low self-esteem was expected to be associated with delinquency. In addition, an additive effect for low self-esteem and high narcissism for predicting of delinquency was expected based on previous research showing a similar effect (e.g., Barry et al., 2003). Finally, dimensions of narcissism previously discussed as adaptive and maladaptive were hypothesized to be differentially related to self-esteem, delinquency, and aggression, thus supporting the adaptive/maladaptive distinction from previous research.