ذهن آگاهی، پنج عامل بزرگ شخصیت، و عاطفه: یک متاآنالیز
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|32205||2009||7 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||6324 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 47, Issue 8, December 2009, Pages 805–811
Mindfulness is purposefully and nonjudgmentally paying attention to the present moment. The primary purpose of this study is to provide a more precise empirical estimate of the relationship between mindfulness and the Big Five personality traits as well as trait affect. Current research results present inconsistent or highly variable estimates of these relationships. Meta-analysis was used to synthesize findings from 32 samples in 29 studies. Results indicate that, although all of the traits display appreciable relationships with mindfulness, the strongest relationships are found with neuroticism, negative affect, and conscientiousness. Conscientiousness, in particular, is often ignored by mindfulness researchers; results here indicate it deserves stronger consideration. Although the results provide a clearer picture of how mindfulness relates to these traits, they also highlight the need to ensure an appropriate conceptualization and measurement of mindfulness.
Mindfulness is a quality of consciousness, more specifically defined as “paying attention in a particular way: on purpose, in the present moment, nonjudgmentally” (Kabat-Zinn, 1994, p. 4). Mindfulness consists of a purposeful attention to and awareness of the present moment, approached with an attitude of openness, acceptance, and nonjudgment (Bishop et al., 2004, Kabat-Zinn, 1990 and Kabat-Zinn, 1994). Research on mindfulness has increased dramatically (Brown, Ryan, & Creswell, 2007) and appears to be warranted. Mindfulness has been shown to have positive effects on mental health and psychological well-being (e.g., depression, anxiety), physical health (e.g., chronic pain), and quality of intimate relationships (Baer, 2003, Brown and Ryan, 2003, Brown et al., 2007 and Grossman et al., 2004). Mindfulness can also reduce stress and burnout in the workplace (e.g., Mackenzie, Poulin, & Seidman-Carlson, 2006) and may have broader effects such as more external awareness at work, more positive relationships at work, and increased adaptability (Hunter & McCormick, 2008). Measurement of the mindfulness construct has begun only in the last decade. To examine validity of a construct, researchers attempt to discern its nomological net; that is, to make clear what something is, often by relating the theoretical construct to other constructs ( Cronbach & Meehl, 1955). Thus, scholars have examined mindfulness in relation to established and well-understood dispositional constructs such as the Big Five personality traits and trait positive and negative affect. However, it is difficult to draw conclusions regarding the relationship of mindfulness to personality and trait affect because research results have been inconsistent. For example, research has shown extraversion to be both positively (e.g., Baer, Smith, & Allen, 2004) and negatively (e.g., Thompson and Waltz, 2007 and Waters, 2007) related to mindfulness. Neuroticism has consistently been shown to relate negatively to mindfulness, however, correlations have ranged from as low as −.28 ( Bartlett and Plaut, 2009 and O’Loughlin and Zuckerman, 2008) to as high as −.58 ( Kostanski, 2007) with estimates spanning this entire range; thus, it is difficult to precisely estimate the magnitude of the relationship. Results for the remaining Big Five personality traits and for trait affect show similar variability. Meta-analysis (Hunter & Schmidt, 2004) is an analytical tool to synthesize results across studies. By cumulating results across individual studies, meta-analysis corrects for the biasing effects of sampling error. Meta-analytic methods can also address the biasing effects of other statistical artifacts such as measurement error. Thus, meta-analysis often can resolve the issue of such seemingly inconsistent results. It provides the most precise and accurate estimate possible given the available data regarding a particular relationship. Therefore, in this paper I seek to contribute to the developing understanding of the mindfulness construct by calculating a more precise and accurate estimate of the observed and construct-level relationships between mindfulness and the Big Five personality traits as well as trait affect. I begin by discussing mindfulness, the Big Five, and trait affect. I then present meta-analytic results of the relationship of mindfulness to personality and trait affect. I conclude with a discussion of the findings as well as implications for the mindfulness construct and future research.
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
In this study, I used meta-analysis to provide a more precise estimate of the relationship between mindfulness and the Big Five personality traits as well as trait affect. Results of the current quantitative review indicate that, while all of the traits display appreciable relationships with mindfulness, the strongest relationships are found with neuroticism, conscientiousness, and negative affect. Conscientiousness, in particular, is often ignored by mindfulness researchers; results here indicate it deserves stronger consideration. Although the results provide a clearer picture of how mindfulness relates to these traits, they also highlight the need to ensure an appropriate conceptualization and adequate measurement of mindfulness. In addition, investigation of mindfulness and these traits at the facet-level is encouraged. Given the evidence that mindfulness has positive effects on mental health and psychological well-being, physical health, and quality of intimate relationships (Baer, 2003, Brown and Ryan, 2003, Brown et al., 2007 and Grossman et al., 2004) and the recent evidence showing that mindfulness may also benefit work outcomes (Hunter & McCormick, 2008), scholars are encouraged to continue to understand the mindfulness construct and how best to conceptualize and measure it.