پیش بینی رفاه و خودتنظیمی مربوط به خواب با ذهن آگاهی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|32224||2010||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||4714 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 48, Issue 4, March 2010, Pages 419–424
Based upon a model of mindfulness and its relationship to self-regulation and well-being, the current study examined relations among mindfulness, a broad range of measures related to self-regulation of sleep, and a comprehensive measure of emotional, psychological, and social well-being. On data from undergraduate students (N = 334), mindfulness predicted well-being both directly and indirectly through its association with self-regulation of sleep, as hypothesized. Results are considered in terms of possible mechanisms underlying these associations and the nature of the self-regulation of sleep.
“Your relationship to sleep is a very fruitful object of mindfulness” (Kabat-Zinn, 1990, p. 367) While much research has examined sleep dysfunction and its psychological consequences or correlates, associations between sleep and positive psychological functioning have only recently begun to garner attention. For example, Wood, Joseph, Lloyd, and Atkins (2009) showed that gratitude and positive pre-sleep cognitions were associated with greater subjective sleep quality and duration, faster sleep latency, and reduced daytime dysfunction. The current study contributes to the emerging literature on sleep and adaptive aspects of psychological functioning by examining relations between sleep, mindfulness, and well-being. 1.1. Mindfulness and sleep Mindfulness is “the tendency to be highly aware of one’s internal and external experiences in the context of an accepting, nonjudgmental stance toward those experiences” (Cardaciotto, Herbert, Forman, Moitra, & Farrow, 2008, p. 205). Mindfulness may be conducive to adaptive sleep-related functioning. First, theoretical arguments have directly implicated heightened mindfulness in reducing sleep dysfunction. Lundh (2005) identified two processes which interact to interfere with sleep: arousal-producing processes such as pre-sleep worry and cognitive-distorting processes such as dysfunctional beliefs about sleep. Lundh further argued that sleep may be improved by decreasing cognitive regulation over sleep and by cultivating acceptance of the physical and mental experiences that precede sleep onset. Second, outcome studies suggest that mindfulness-based psychological treatments improve sleep functioning (Winbush, Gross, & Kreitzer, 2007), and do so in part by reducing arousal-producing and cognitive-distorting processes (Ong et al., 2008 and Yook et al., 2008). Finally, correlational studies reveal that higher dispositional mindfulness is associated with reduced daytime sleepiness (Ong, Shapiro, & Manber, 2009) and improved sleep quality (Howell, Digdon, Buro, & Sheptycki, 2008). 1.2. Well-being and sleep Keyes (2005) conceptualized well-being as comprising three realms: emotional well-being, emphasizing the presence of positive affect and life satisfaction; psychological well-being, emphasizing satisfaction with one’s achievements and viewing oneself as having a purpose in life and growing as an individual; and social well-being, emphasizing the quality of one’s orientation toward others. Emotional well-being is associated with longer sleep duration (Bardwell et al., 1999 and Fulgini and Hardway, 2006), earlier sleep onset (Totterdell, Reynolds, Parkinson, & Briner, 1994), greater sleep efficiency (Gray & Watson, 2002), and fewer sleep problems (Hamilton, Gallagher et al., 2007 and Steptoe et al., 2008). Psychological well-being is correlated with longer sleep duration and increased rapid eye movement sleep (Hamilton, Nelson et al., 2007 and Ryff et al., 2004), as well as fewer sleep problems (Hamilton, Gallagher et al., 2007 and Steptoe et al., 2008). All three types of well-being are associated with better sleep quality (Gray and Watson, 2002, Howell et al., 2008 and Norlander et al., 2005). 1.3. Conceptualizing relationships among mindfulness, sleep, and well-being Theorists have argued that mindfulness, in addition to being a direct predictor of well-being, is an indirect predictor of well-being through its influence on improved self-regulated functioning (Brown and Ryan, 2003, Brown et al., 2007b, Shapiro and Schwartz, 1999 and Shapiro and Schwartz, 2000). The direct association between mindfulness and well-being is said to result from the richness of sensory experience engendered by mindfulness (Brown et al., 2007b); consistent with this, associations have been demonstrated between mindfulness and aspects of emotional, psychological, and social well-being (e.g., Brown and Ryan, 2003 and Howell et al., 2008). Brown and colleagues (Brown and Ryan, 2003 and Brown et al., 2007b) also argued that mindfulness fosters well-being indirectly by sensitizing individuals to bodily cues related to intrinsic needs, allowing people to better regulate themselves toward meeting those needs and, as a result, to experience greater well-being. According to Brown and Ryan (2003), mindfulness induces “an enhancement of self-regulated functioning that comes with ongoing attentional sensitivity to psychological, somatic, and environmental cues” (p. 220). In a similar vein, Shapiro and Schwartz, 1999 and Shapiro and Schwartz, 2000 argued that attending to bodily processes in a mindful manner is conducive to healthy self-regulation of behaviour and ultimately to well-being. This conceptual framework can be extended to the domain of sleep-related functioning: Consistent with arguments made by Lundh (2005), being mindful may foster greater self-regulation of sleep (i.e., greater awareness and acceptance of the bodily need for sleep, and of ongoing sleep-related thoughts, feelings, and behaviours); this in turn may foster greater well-being. In an initial test of this conceptual model, Howell et al. (2008) employed path analysis to show that the prediction of well-being by mindfulness was mediated, in part, through improved sleep quality. 1.4. The current study In the current study, we included a broad range of sleep measures that address arousal-producing processes (e.g., pre-sleep arousal), cognitive-distorting ones (e.g., dysfunctional beliefs about sleep), or both (e.g., sleep effort and sleep hygiene), as well as indicators of overall sleep-related functioning (e.g., sleep quality and daytime sleepiness). We hypothesized that mindfulness would predict both well-being and sleep-related functioning, and that sleep-related functioning would predict well-being. Further, we hypothesized that, when examining all associations simultaneously, support would emerge for the model positing a direct association between mindfulness and well-being and an indirect one, mediated by self-regulation in the sleep domain.