سه چهره از خودشیفتگی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|32246||2012||5 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||3590 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 53, Issue 3, August 2012, Pages 274–278
Narcissism is increasingly recognised as a heterogeneous construct, with two dimensions of narcissistic dysfunction commonly accepted, Grandiose Narcissism and Vulnerable Narcissism. The current study aimed to provide empirical support for the heterogeneity of Narcissism. Along with the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI) and the Narcissism subscale of the Narcissism–Aloofness–Confidence–Empathy (NACE), questionnaires assessing personality traits, psychopathologies, and behavioural characteristics were administered to Australian university students. In addition to confirming the two dimensions of Narcissism through factor and correlational analyses, a possible third dimension of Narcissism emerged which was markedly aggressive and antisocial. The current study highlights the phenomenological breadth of Narcissism and the need for an improved understanding of Narcissism, particularly given the imminent publication of DSM-5.
Narcissism has been a concept of interest for a considerable time, having been explored in a variety of domains including Greek mythology, psychodynamic theory, psychiatric practice, and personality research. Despite this enduring fascination, there has been a lack of agreement regarding the conceptualisation of Narcissism. Although Narcissism is now commonly accepted as multi-dimensional, it was traditionally conceptualised as a homogeneous construct. An appreciation of the heterogeneity of Narcissism is crucial for a clearer understanding of the construct as well as improving the detection and management of Narcissism. This is particularly relevant at the present time as the reformulation of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders is questioning the diagnostic utility and reliability of Narcissism as an independent personality disorder. Two distinct dimensions of Narcissism are increasingly accepted (Cain et al., 2008 and Wink, 1991). Grandiose Narcissism is characterised by overt grandiosity and exhibitionism. Individuals with this grandiose expression of Narcissism openly display a sense of entitlement and are preoccupied with a need for admiring attention from others. Vulnerable Narcissism is a more covert dimension of Narcissism associated with hypersensitivity to criticism and a tendency to withdraw from social interactions. For those displaying this vulnerable expression of Narcissism, attempts to inhibit grandiose desires and control an underlying sense of entitlement often result in distress. With these distinct and seemingly conflicting descriptions of narcissistic dysfunction, it is not surprising that approaches to the measurement of Narcissism have been varied. Research examining self-report measures of Narcissism has shown little association between scales which have been found to focus on grandiosity and those that emphasise vulnerability (Wink, 1991). This supports the idea that there are two distinct groups of self-report Narcissism scales, neither of which portray the full breadth of the construct. However, measures that assess both Grandiose Narcissism and Vulnerable Narcissism have begun to emerge. The most notable of these is the Pathological Narcissism Inventory (PNI; Pincus et al., 2009). Although not as well explored in empirical literature, the Narcissism subscale of the Narcissism–Aloofness–Confidence–Empathy scale (NACE; Munro, Bore, & Powis, 2005) is another measure of Narcissism that assesses a range of narcissistic tendencies. Research that distinguishes between the dimensions of Narcissism reveals that Grandiose Narcissism and Vulnerable Narcissism display distinct relationships with various correlates. For example, Miller et al. (2011) found Grandiose Narcissism related positively to Extraversion and negatively to Neuroticism, while Vulnerable Narcissism related negatively to Extraversion and positively to Neuroticism through factor and correlational analysis using the PNI. Miller et al. also found Grandiose Narcissism was unrelated to psychological distress, whilst Vulnerable Narcissism was positively related to psychological distress. Similarly, the dimensions of Narcissism were found to relate to different factors of Psychopathy, with Grandiose Narcissism more closely related to Primary Psychopathy and Vulnerable Narcissism more closely associated with Secondary Psychopathy (Miller et al., 2010). Distinguishing between the dimensions of Narcissism may also provide further insight into established relationships between Narcissism and other correlates such as aggression (Baumeister, Bushman, & Campbell, 2000). Like the aforementioned work of Miller et al. (2011), the current study used factor and correlational analyses to explore the dimensional structure of Narcissism and provide further evidence for its heterogeneity. However, different measures of Narcissism and construct validity variables were used in this study. Based on the aforementioned clinical and empirical literature (Cain et al., 2008, Miller et al., 2011 and Wink, 1991), it was predicted that a two-factor structure would underlie both PNI and the NACE Narcissism subscale, with one factor characterised by grandiosity and self-centredness (Grandiose factor) and the other factor characterised by vulnerability and hypersensitivity (Vulnerable factor). It was predicted that the Grandiose and Vulnerable factors would share characteristics fundamental to Narcissism, with both factors displaying negative relationships with Empathy, Agreeableness, and Conscientiousness. Additionally, it was predicted that the factors of Narcissism would be distinguishable through distinct patterns of intrapersonal and interpersonal styles. Consistent with previous empirical research (Miller et al., 2010 and Miller et al., 2011), it was anticipated that the Grandiose factor would display relationships indicative of a grandiose and self-centred individual (e.g. positive relationships with Grandiosity, Extraversion, Primary Psychopathy, and Physical and Verbal Aggression; negative relationships with Neuroticism and Psychological Distress). On the other hand, the Vulnerable factor was expected to display correlations suggestive of vulnerable and hypersensitive individuals (e.g. positive relationships with Hypersensitivity, Neuroticism, Secondary Psychopathy, Anger and Hostility; negative relationships with Extraversion).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The current study provides further empirical support for Grandiose Narcissism and Vulnerable Narcissism through factor and correlational analyses similar to Miller et al. (2011). Unexpectedly, a third possible dimension of Narcissism emerged from this study. Empirical support for the two dimensions of Narcissism, and the emergence of a possible third dimension, highlights the phenomenological breadth and complexity of Narcissism. As the current study was exploratory, further research into the aggressive, antisocial dimension of Narcissism is required. With the imminent publication of DSM-5, the results of the study emphasise the need for Narcissistic Personality Disorder diagnostic criteria that fully reflects the richness of the construct.