استفاده از اعتماد به نفس برای غیرکل اختلالات فکری و روانی، خودشیفتگی، و پرخاشگری
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|32255||2013||6 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||محاسبه نشده|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 54, Issue 7, May 2013, Pages 815–820
Past research offers conflicting conclusions regarding the associations between self-esteem, psychopathy, narcissism, and aggression. The current study clarified these associations by examining self-esteem level and stability as it relates to the factors of psychopathy and narcissism predicting aggression. Self-report assessments were administered to 118 undergraduates. While self-esteem instability was not related to psychopathy or narcissism, it was positively correlated with aggression. Additionally, those with the healthier aspects of narcissism and Factor 1 features of psychopathy had high self-esteem and less aggression, while those with more pathological narcissism and Factor 2 features of psychopathy had lower self-esteem and more aggression. Specifically, the relationship between psychopathy Factor 1 and aggression was partially mediated by lower self-esteem.
Psychopathy is most commonly associated with aggressive behavior (see Porter & Woodworth, 2006). The construct is customarily divided into two factors (Benning et al., 2003 and Hare, 2003), with Factor 1 encompassing the interpersonal-affective traits of superficial charm, absence of remorse, manipulation, and grandiosity, and Factor 2 reflecting the behavioral-lifestyle aspects of criminal versatility, conduct problems, irresponsibility, and impulsivity. While commonly studied in criminal populations, psychopathy can be conceptualized on a continuum (e.g., Edens et al., 2006 and Miller et al., 2001) and the construct, as well as the link with aggression, has been validated in college and community samples (e.g., Falkenbach et al., 2008 and Uzieblo et al., 2010). Narcissism is a pervasive pattern of grandiosity, self-attention, and self-importance (DSM-IV-TR; American Psychiatric Association, 2000), depicted through entitlement and exploited interpersonal relationships. Recent discussions indicate that narcissism may be better conceptualized as two distinct constructs; normal/healthy narcissism and pathological narcissism (Gabbard, 1989, Kernberg, 1975, Pincus and Lukowitsky, 2010, Raskin and Terry, 1988, Rhodewalt and Morf, 1995, Rose, 2002, Solomon, 1982 and Watson et al., 1996). Individuals with healthy narcissism boast an ideal and arrogant sense of self, assert dominance in social situations, use self-enhancement in adaptive ways and are capable of dealing effectively with their environment. Conversely, pathological narcissism is characterized by superficial grandiosity and a sense of self-worth that is dependent on admiration and love from others. As such, pathological narcissists have developed a personality organization designed to protect them from threats against their psychological being (e.g., feeling unloved and ineffective). They are vulnerable, anxious, and defensive (Kernberg, 1975, Pincus and Lukowitsky, 2010 and Wink, 1991). Narcissism and psychopathy share a number of characteristics (e.g., grandiosity, lack of empathy, and exploitation in relationships). Healthy narcissism is specifically related to psychopathy Factor 1 whereas pathological narcissism is more closely akin to Factor 2 (Ackerman et al., 2011, Claes et al., 2009, Skeem et al., 2003 and Witt and Donnellan, 2008). A significant body of research links narcissism with aggression (Baumeister, 2001 and Hart and Joubert, 1996), and some have delineated psychopathy “as the most severe form of ‘pathological narcissism,’ a brand of narcissism particularly related to aggression and retaliation (see Kernberg, 1975, Kernberg, 1998 and Meloy and Gacono, 1998)” (Cale & Lilienfeld, 2006, p. 54). 1.2. Self-esteem and aggression The “pathological egocentricity” and “grandiose sense of self-worth” criteria of psychopathy and narcissism definitions (APA, 2000, Cleckley, 1941 and Hare, 2003) make self-esteem a central component of these constructs. Recent research implies that the heterogeneous constructs of psychopathy and narcissism may in fact be disaggregated by self-esteem; higher self-esteem is a defining characteristic of Factor 1 psychopathy and healthy narcissism, and lower self-esteem prompts the behavior of those with Factor 2 psychopathic and pathological narcissistic traits (Ackerman et al., 2011, Cale and Lilienfeld, 2006, Maxwell et al., 2011, Rose, 2002, Rozenblatt, 2002, Sinek, 2003, Solomon, 1982, Watson et al., 1996 and Witt and Donnellan, 2008). There is an established link between low self-esteem and aggression (Vogal and Brown, 1983 and Wallace et al., 2012), although Baumeister, Smart, and Boden (1996) argue that the research is less than consistent. Instability, or short-term fluctuations in a person’s self-view, is also speculated to be important in self-esteem, and is associated with an over-reliance on external sources of evaluation (Hoyle et al., 1999 and Kernis et al., 1993). When these evaluations are negative, this over-reliance ultimately leads to aggressive behavior as a way of minimizing the harmful impact of these events on self-esteem (Kernis, Grannemann, & Barclay, 1989). The pathological aspects of narcissism and psychopathy have been theoretically and empirically linked to self-esteem instability, suggesting that individuals with these traits may fail to take a realistic view of themselves and their abilities, leading to a distorted and unstable perception of their self worth, a hypersensitivity to criticism and rejection, and a related propensity towards aggression (Bushman and Baumeister, 1998, Cale and Lilienfeld, 2006, Kernberg, 1975, Paulhus and Williams, 2002, Ronningstam, 2005 and Sinek, 2003).
نتیجه گیری انگلیسی
The current study demonstrated that the psychopathy and narcissism factors differentially relate to self-esteem and aggression, indicating a continued need to consider the heterogeneity of these constructs and clarify the previously theoretical ideas regarding the maladaptive overlap between the constructs. Individuals that harbor the healthier aspects of narcissism and the personality features of psychopathy have a positive perception of themselves and report less aggression, while those with more pathological narcissism and the behavioral features of psychopathy have a less positive view of themselves and reveal more aggression. “These findings may hold implications for the situations in which covert narcissists, and perhaps secondary psychopaths, are at risk for violence” (Skeem et al., 2003, p. 553). Additionally, the relationship between psychopathy Factor 2 and aggression is partially mediated by low self-esteem. Although past research has produced conflicting findings about the association between low self-esteem and aggressive behavior (Baumeister et al., 1996) the results of this study suggest an existing association, particularly in the context of individuals who have unstable self-esteem, high pathological narcissism and/or psychopathy Factor 2 traits. As such, work on enhancing and stabilizing self-esteem may be an important component of treatments that are designed for these individuals. In addition, given the possibility that self-esteem has protective effects against negative responses to aversive events, future research should explore the mechanisms through which high self-esteem may protect narcissistic and psychopathic individuals from these negative responses. If these individuals have more cohesive and developed self-concepts, they may be less reliant on their external environments to bolster their sense of self and thus, less prone to behaving aggressively as a way of exerting control over their environments (Ronningstam, 2005 and Wallace et al., 2012).