ترس، عدم عشق، بازتاب: خودشیفتگی، اعتماد به نفس، و تئوری خودتناقض
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|32272||2014||5 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||3761 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Personality and Individual Differences, Volume 74, February 2015, Pages 280–284
This study used self-discrepancy theory to explore self-esteem and narcissism. College students (N = 450) completed measures of self-discrepancy, affect, self-esteem, and narcissism. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses found that self-discrepancies explained variance in self-esteem and narcissism beyond that explained by affect. Results also indicated that the actual-ideal and actual-undesired self-discrepancies predicted self-esteem, while the actual-undesired self-discrepancy was the only significant predictor of narcissism. This study provides evidence of incremental validity for self-discrepancies in measuring self-esteem and narcissism. It also suggests that narcissism is associated with an undesired, not an ideal, self-concept.
In Greek mythology, Narcissus falls in love with an unreal image of himself, and his excessive self-love and self-absorption ultimately destroy him (Grant, 1995). Contemporary theories suggest that narcissism is a self-regulatory process in which maladaptive strategies are used to modulate emotions and maintain a positive self-image (Campbell et al., 2004, Morf and Rhodewalt, 2001 and Uji et al., 2012). The purpose of this study was to explore self-esteem and narcissism through the lens of self-discrepancy theory (SDT; Higgins, 1987). Narcissism may be seen as having normal and pathological aspects (Paulhus, 2001 and Sedikides et al., 2002). Normal narcissism elicits healthy self-enhancement behaviors such as experiencing positive illusions of the self and minimizing information inconsistent with one’s self-image (Morf & Rhodewalt, 2001) and correlates with good psychological health (Sedikides, Rudich, Gregg, Kumashiro, & Rusbult, 2004). In contrast, pathological narcissism elicits behavioral impairments caused by a brittle sense of self (Pincus et al., 2009). Pathological narcissism is a duality: deep insecurity shrouded by grandiosity (Kealy and Rasmussen, 2012, Morf and Rhodewalt, 2001 and Pincus and Lukowitsky, 2010). Narcissistic vulnerability involves feelings of low self-esteem, and shame, while enduring social avoidance to cope with threats to the self ( Zeigler-Hill & Besser, 2013). Pathologically narcissistic individuals appear to become distressed when encountering threats and disappointments to their positive self-image ( Campbell et al., 2002 and Kernis and Sun, 1994). Narcissistic grandiosity is the tendency to distort negative information to create fantasies of superiority and perfection and creating an inflated self-concept ( Dickinson and Pincus, 2003 and Morf and Rhodewalt, 2001).