"خروج لیست دوستان من: برداشت ها از خودشیفتگی در فیس بوک
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|32283||2015||11 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||9260 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Computers in Human Behavior, Volume 51, Part A, October 2015, Pages 244–254
Social media sites such as Facebook are thought to act as a platform for narcissistic behavior, such as posting self-promoting status updates or attractive photos. Narcissism is identifiable via social media, and it has been associated with negative peer appraisals. This article presents three studies with undergraduate students that examined the interpersonal implications of narcissism on Facebook in light of gender and perceiver narcissism. Results indicated that hypothetical targets who posted narcissistic status updates were perceived as less likeable, less successful, and less worthy of friendship than those who posted neutral status updates. Across the three studies, perceiver narcissism and target gender had some apparent influences on ratings. Implications regarding social media behavior and the interpersonal consequences of narcissism are discussed.
With the growing popularity of social networking sites such as Facebook, the role of narcissism in social media behavior is drawing more attention, as such sites present a presumed avenue for showcasing egocentrism. Some researchers have speculated that narcissism has become so prevalent and problematic that it may be considered an “epidemic” (Twenge & Campbell, 2010), with social media being regarded as a contributor to (Gentile, Twenge, Freeman, & Campbell, 2012), or artifact of (Clifton, 2011), narcissism in our society. The present study sought to investigate how narcissism might be perceived by others on one particular social networking platform (i.e., Facebook). Narcissism is characterized by grandiosity, arrogance, entitlement, vanity, and general preoccupation with appraisals from others. Paradoxically, individuals with these tendencies also may not feel that they should have to earn this praise and admiration (Raskin & Terry, 1988). Although this collection of traits may seem rather undesirable to interaction partners, the same interpersonal qualities that make the narcissistic individual aversive to others may also lend themselves to engagement in socially desirable behavior (e.g., leadership, prosocial behavior; Campbell and Campbell, 2009 and Kauten and Barry, 2014). Given the skillful manipulation that is inherent in the construct, individuals with characteristics of narcissism are generally adept at achieving their needs through short-term interpersonal relationships (Jonason, Lyons, Bethell, & Ross, 2013). Narcissists excel in interactions with others based on the positive associations between narcissism and perceived quality of interpersonal relationships, self-reliance, and a robust sense of self-esteem (Barry and Kauten, 2014 and Barry and Wallace, 2010). Despite these psychosocial benefits, narcissism may also contribute to strain in one’s relationships. 1.1. Narcissism and interpersonal relationships Narcissistic individuals are believed to be particularly adept at manipulating early perceptions of interaction partners. Initially, the charm and charisma associated with narcissism serves to entice interaction and relationship partners (Young & Pinsky, 2006). Individuals with elevated levels of narcissism are easily identified (Carlson, Vazire et al., 2011, Lukowitsky and Pincus, 2013 and Malkin et al., 2013) by factors such as fancy or expensive clothing, self-assuredness, and humor (Back, Schmukle, & Egloff, 2010). Holtzman, Vazire, and Mehl (2010) suggest that narcissistic individuals make positive first impressions based on their extraverted and charismatic personalities, though their disagreeable traits are eventually exhibited, and relationship partners become disillusioned. Similarly, Carlson, Naumann et al., 2011 and Carlson, Vazire et al., 2011 found that well-acquainted others perceive individuals who endorse elevated levels of narcissism less positively than do new acquaintances. Further evidence suggests that individuals who identify themselves as having narcissistic qualities are perceived by well-acquainted peers as being aggressive (Golmaryami & Barry, 2010), even though individuals with high levels of narcissism may perceive themselves as prosocial (Kauten & Barry, 2014). Furthermore, in a sample of adolescents living together at a residential program, individuals with narcissistic tendencies were rated by peers as having an antagonistic interpersonal style (Grafeman, Barry, Marcus, & Leachman, 2015). The same study found that qualities typically associated with narcissism were easily identified by peers, suggesting that narcissism is readily apparent to interaction partners. No clear conclusions can be drawn from previous research as to how perceptions of narcissism vary as a function of the perceiver’s own narcissism. Given that narcissistic individuals are concerned with their image and regard by others, they may be ideal targets for others who are seeking a similar public persona. For example, Campbell (1999) suggested that individuals with elevated levels of narcissistic personality traits prefer partners who would enhance their status over those who are caring and kind. From this perspective, individuals with elevated levels of narcissism would seek out similar interaction partners on the basis of similarity and as a means of social currency and thus may view such partners favorably. Alternately, narcissistic individuals may perceive similar others as a threat and may, in turn, respond with aggressive behavior to perceived threats (c.f., Bogart et al., 2004 and Thomaes et al., 2008) based on feelings of entitlement and a desire to achieve dominance in relationships. They may particularly perceive others who present a narcissistic image as rivals. In light of these conflicting possibilities, the present study examined how narcissistic presentations are viewed on social media as a function of the perceiver’s narcissism. The investigation also considered the role of gender, both of the target and the perceiver.