به حداکثر رساندن مواجهه درمانی: روش یادگیری بازدارندگی
|کد مقاله||سال انتشار||مقاله انگلیسی||ترجمه فارسی||تعداد کلمات|
|32348||2014||14 صفحه PDF||سفارش دهید||14546 کلمه|
Publisher : Elsevier - Science Direct (الزویر - ساینس دایرکت)
Journal : Behaviour Research and Therapy, Volume 58, July 2014, Pages 10–23
Exposure therapy is an effective approach for treating anxiety disorders, although a substantial number of individuals fail to benefit or experience a return of fear after treatment. Research suggests that anxious individuals show deficits in the mechanisms believed to underlie exposure therapy, such as inhibitory learning. Targeting these processes may help improve the efficacy of exposure-based procedures. Although evidence supports an inhibitory learning model of extinction, there has been little discussion of how to implement this model in clinical practice. The primary aim of this paper is to provide examples to clinicians for how to apply this model to optimize exposure therapy with anxious clients, in ways that distinguish it from a ‘fear habituation’ approach and ‘belief disconfirmation’ approach within standard cognitive-behavior therapy. Exposure optimization strategies include 1) expectancy violation, 2) deepened extinction, 3) occasional reinforced extinction, 4) removal of safety signals, 5) variability, 6) retrieval cues, 7) multiple contexts, and 8) affect labeling. Case studies illustrate methods of applying these techniques with a variety of anxiety disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, social phobia, specific phobia, and panic disorder.
Exposure therapy, or repeated approach toward fear provoking stimuli, has been a mainstay of cognitive behavioral therapy for anxiety disorders since its inception. Exposure takes various forms, including graduated versus intense (or flooding therapy), brief versus prolonged, with and without various cognitive and somatic coping strategies (as reviewed by Meuret, Wolitzky-Taylor, Twohig, & Craske, 2012), and imaginal, interoceptive or in vivo (or in real life). Exposure therapy has proven to be an effective treatment strategy for fear and anxiety disorders (Hofmann and Smits, 2008 and Norton and Price, 2007). Our understanding of the mechanisms responsible for the effects of exposure therapy has evolved over the years (see Craske et al., 2008 and Craske et al., 2012). The aims of the current paper are to review the inhibitory learning model of extinction as a mechanism for exposure therapy for fear and anxiety, and to detail the clinical application of this model. The translation is presented in a listing of specific behavioral strategies followed by their description in the context of case studies of panic disorder and agoraphobia, social anxiety disorder, posttraumatic stress disorder, obsessive compulsive disorder and specific phobia. Other approaches to exposure therapy include habituation-based models, which emphasize reduction in fear throughout exposure, and behavioral testing to explicitly disconfirm threat-laden beliefs and assumptions (e.g., Foa and Kozak, 1986, Foa and McNally, 1996 and Salkovskis et al., 2006). We have compared the inhibitory learning model to fear habituation and ‘belief disconfirmation using behavioral testing’ models in prior papers (i.e., Craske et al., 2008, Craske et al., 2008 and Craske et al., 2012). In the discussion that follows, we present specific applications for ways in which the inhibitory learning model differs from these other models.